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School Codes for the Exchange of Data (SCED) Course Codes - Version 3


The following table contains version 3 of the SCED Course Codes. Version 2 is available at this link.
SCED Course Code Course Title Course Description

01001English/Language Arts I (9th grade) English/Language Arts I (9th grade) courses build upon students’ prior knowledge of grammar, vocabulary, word usage, and the mechanics of writing and usually include the four aspects of language use: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Typically, these courses introduce and define various genres of literature, with writing exercises often linked to reading selections.
01002 English/Language Arts II (10th grade) English/Language Arts II (10th grade) courses usually offer a balanced focus on composition and literature. Typically, students learn about the alternate aims and audiences of written compositions by writing persuasive, critical, and creative multi-paragraph essays and compositions. Through the study of various genres of literature, students can improve their reading rate and comprehension and develop the skills to determine the author’s intent and theme and to recognize the techniques used by the author to deliver his or her message.
01003English/Language Arts III (11th grade)English/Language Arts III (11th grade) courses continue to develop students’ writing skills, emphasizing clear, logical writing patterns, word choice, and usage, as students write essays and begin to learn the techniques of writing research papers. Students continue to read works of literature, which often form the backbone of the writing assignments. Literary conventions and stylistic devices may receive greater emphasis than in previous courses.
01004English/Language Arts IV (12th grade)English/Language Arts IV (12th grade) courses blend composition and literature into a cohesive whole as students write critical and comparative analyses of selected literature, continuing to develop their language arts skills. Typically, students primarily write multi-paragraph essays, but they may also write one or more major research papers.
01005AP English Language and CompositionFollowing the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to parallel college-level English courses, AP English Language and Composition courses expose students to prose written in a variety of periods, disciplines, and rhetorical contexts. These courses emphasize the interaction of authorial purpose, intended audience, and the subject at hand, and through them, students learn to develop stylistic flexibility as they write compositions covering a variety of subjects that are intended for various purposes.
01006AP English Literature and CompositionFollowing the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to parallel college-level English courses, AP English Literature and Composition courses enable students to develop critical standards for evaluating literature. Students study the language, character, action, and theme in works of recognized literary merit; enrich their understanding of connotation, metaphor, irony, syntax, and tone; and write compositions of their own (including literary analysis, exposition, argument, narrative, and creative writing).
01007IB Language A: Literature—EnglishIB Language A: Literature—English courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using English in an academic context.
01008English as a Second LanguageEnglish as a Second Language (ESL) courses are designed for the acquisition and rapid mastery of the English language, focusing on reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills. ESL courses usually begin with extensive listening and speaking practice, building on auditory and oral skills, and then move on to reading and writing. These courses provide an explanation of basic structures of the English language, enabling students to progress from an elementary understanding of English words and verb tenses to a more comprehensive grasp of various formal and informal styles and then to advance to “regular” English courses. ESL classes may also include an orientation to the customs and culture of the diverse population in the United States.
01009Language Arts LaboratoryLanguage Arts Laboratory courses provide instruction in basic language skills, integrating reading, writing, speaking, and listening, while placing great emphasis on the progress of individual students. Course content depends upon students’ abilities and may include vocabulary building, improving spelling and grammar, developing writing and composition skills, reading silently or aloud, and improving listening and comprehension abilities.
01010IB Language A (English), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language A (English), Middle Years Program courses include instruction in the instrumental function of a language, emphasizing skills in listening, viewing, speaking, reading, and writing, as well as literature encompassing a variety of periods and genres.
01011IB Language A: Language and Literature—EnglishIB Language A: Language and Literature—English courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using English in an academic context.
01012IB Literature and PerformanceIB Literature and Performance courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Literature and Performance exam at the standard level. Course content focuses on the relationship between literature and theatre. These courses may cover the critical study of literary texts, the exploration of chosen approaches to a text, and the performance of written texts.
01026Language Arts (early childhood education)Language Arts (early childhood education) courses develop students’ readiness for language arts learning in reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Courses may include activities related to phonics, phonemic awareness, and vocabulary. Content is age appropriate and conforms to any existing state standards for early childhood education.
01027Language Arts (pre-kindergarten)Language Arts (pre-kindergarten) courses develop students’ readiness for language arts learning in reading, writing, listening, and speaking. Courses may include activities related to phonics, phonemic awareness, and vocabulary. Content is age appropriate and conforms to any existing state standards for pre-kindergarten education.
01028Language Arts (kindergarten)Language Arts (kindergarten) courses engage students in activities to develop their language arts skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking). Course content may emphasize storytelling or reading aloud and evoking a written, oral, or pictorial response. Specific content depends upon state standards for kindergarten.
01029Language Arts (grade 1)Language Arts (grade 1) courses include the four aspects of language use: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. These courses may emphasize recognition of and response to various types of text, extension of vocabulary and writing skills, and the connection of language to the expression of ideas. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 1.
01030Language Arts (grade 2)Language Arts (grade 2) courses include the four aspects of language use: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. These courses may build students’ skills in independent reading and writing by increasing reading and writing fluency, vocabulary, and recognition of word and language patterns. They may also introduce or reinforce the rules of grammar. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 2.
01031Language Arts (grade 3)Language Arts (grade 3) courses include the four aspects of language use: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. These courses may emphasize independent reading and writing in a variety of assignments. Some emphasis may also be placed on presentation or oral communication skills. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 3.
01032Language Arts (grade 4)Language Arts (grade 4) courses include the four aspects of language use: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. These courses may emphasize independent reading and writing in a variety of assignments and require students to respond to different material in different ways. Grammar and usage of the English language may also be emphasized. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 4.
01033Language Arts (grade 5)Language Arts (grade 5) courses include the four aspects of language use: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. These courses may extend students’ skills in composition, writing for particular purposes or audiences, distinguishing meaning and literary functions in texts, and fluency in reading. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 5.
01034Language Arts (grade 6)Language Arts (grade 6) courses build upon students’ prior knowledge of grammar, vocabulary, word usage, and the mechanics of writing, and include the four aspects of language use: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. These courses may emphasize the use of language for different effects, in different contexts, and for different purposes. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 6.
01035Language Arts (grade 7)Language Arts (grade 7) courses build upon students’ prior knowledge of grammar, vocabulary, word usage, and the mechanics of writing, and include the four aspects of language use: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Beyond emphasizing different uses for language, these courses may also include using language (particularly written text) to construct meaning and connections. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 7.
01036Language Arts (grade 8)Language Arts (grade 8) courses build upon students’ prior knowledge of grammar, vocabulary, word usage, and the mechanics of writing, and include the four aspects of language use: reading, writing, speaking, and listening. Typically, these courses use various genres of literature to improve reading skills, and they link writing exercises for different purposes to those reading selections. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 8.
01037Language Arts—General Language Arts—General courses involve content that is not grade differentiated and may apply to a range of consecutive grades (e.g., "by third grade, students should know and be able to do…"). These courses include content that may be applicable to states or localities that do not employ grade-level content standards. [These courses provide broad content that is not organized as described elsewhere (i.e., Language Arts, early childhood education through grade 8).]
01038Reading (early childhood education)Reading (early childhood education) courses develop students’ readiness for language arts, particularly focusing on reading skills. Courses may include activities related to phonics, phonemic awareness, and vocabulary. Content is age-appropriate and conforms to any existing state standards for early childhood education.
01039Reading (pre-kindergarten)Reading (pre-kindergarten) courses develop students’ readiness for language arts, particularly focusing on reading skills. Courses may include activities related to phonics, phonemic awareness, and vocabulary. Content is age-appropriate and conforms to any existing state standards for pre-kindergarten education.
01040Reading (kindergarten)Reading (kindergarten) courses engage students in activities to develop their reading skills. Course content may emphasize storytelling or reading aloud and evoking a written, oral, or pictorial response. Specific content depends upon state standards for kindergarten.
01041Reading (grade 1)Reading (grade 1) courses focus on reading skills and may emphasize recognition of and response to various types of text; extension of vocabulary; and the connection of language to the expression of ideas. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 1.
01042Reading (grade 2)Reading (grade 2) courses focus on reading skills and may build students’ skills in independent reading by increasing reading fluency, vocabulary, and recognition of word and language patterns. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 2.
01043Reading (grade 3)Reading (grade 3) courses focus on reading skills and may emphasize independent reading in a variety of assignments. Some emphasis may also be placed on presentation skills. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 3.
01044Reading (grade 4)Reading (grade 4) courses focus on reading skills and may emphasize independent reading in a variety of assignments and require students to respond to different material in different ways. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 4.
01045Reading (grade 5)Reading (grade 5) courses focus on reading skills and may extend students’ skills in distinguishing meaning and literary functions in texts, and fluency in reading. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 5.
01046Reading (grade 6)Reading (grade 6) courses build upon students’ prior knowledge and skill in reading and may emphasize the use of language for different effects, in different contexts, and for different purposes. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 6.
01047Reading (grade 7)Reading (grade 7) courses build upon students’ prior knowledge and skill in reading and may emphasize the use of language for different effects, in different contexts, and for different purposes. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 7.
01048Reading (grade 8)Reading (grade 8) courses build upon students’ prior knowledge and skill in reading. Typically, these courses use various genres of literature to improve reading skills, and link exercises for different purposes to those reading selections. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 8.
01049Reading—General Reading—General courses involve content that is not grade differentiated and may apply to a range of consecutive grades (e.g., "by third grade, students should know and be able to do…"). These courses include content that may be applicable to states or localities that do not employ grade-level content standards. [These courses provide broad content that is not organized as described elsewhere (i.e., Reading, early childhood education through grade 8.]
01051English/Literature (freshmen and sophomores)English/Literature (freshmen and sophomores) courses are designed for freshmen and/or sophomores and typically introduce them to two or more genres of literature (novel, short story, poetry, and so on). Exploration of each genre’s literary elements; determination of theme and intent; and examination of vocabulary and semantics are often included in the course content. Writing assignments are required as an additional method to improve understanding and comprehension.
01052English/Literature (juniors and seniors)English/Literature (juniors and seniors) courses are designed for juniors and/or seniors and emphasize comprehension, discernment, and critical-thinking skills in the reading of texts and literature. These courses introduce and explore more advanced literary techniques (irony, satire, humor, connotation, tone, rhythm, symbolism, and so on) through two or more literary genres, with the aim of creating sophisticated readers. Writing assignments are required as an additional method to develop and improve critical-thinking and analytic skills.
01053LiteratureLiterature courses offer the opportunity for students to study and reflect upon the themes presented in the body of literature being presented. Students improve their critical-thinking skills as they determine the underlying assumptions and values within the reading selection and as they understand how the work reflects society’s problems and culture. Oral discussion is an integral part of literature courses, and written compositions are often required. Literature courses may survey representative works, reflect a particular genre or a specific theme, or survey works of a particular time or people.
01054American LiteratureAmerican Literature courses focus upon commonly known American authors and their work. Students improve their critical-thinking skills as they determine the underlying assumptions and values within the selected works and as they understand how the literature reflects the society of the time. Oral discussion is an integral part of literature courses, and written compositions are often required.
01055American Literature/HistoryAmerican Literature/History courses integrate the study of American literature with an overview of U.S. history. These courses may also include other aspects of American culture, such as art or music. A two-year sequence or two-period per day class may be required to cover the same objectives as would be covered separately in U.S. History Overview and American Literature.
01056British LiteratureBritish Literature courses may provide a survey of British literature or may focus on a selected timeframe of England’s history. Students improve their critical-thinking skills as they determine the underlying assumptions and values within the selected works and as they understand how the literature reflects the society of the time. Oral discussion is an integral part of literature courses, and written compositions are often required.
01057British Literature/HistoryBritish Literature/History courses integrate the study of British literature with an overview of the history of England. These courses may also include other aspects of British culture, such as art or music. A two-year sequence or two-period per day class may be required to cover the same objectives as would be covered separately in English History Overview and British Literature.
01058World LiteratureWorld Literature courses use representative literature selections from ancient and/or modern times from countries around the world. Students improve their critical-thinking skills as they comprehend the diversity of literary traditions and the influences of those traditions. Oral discussion is an integral part of literature courses, and written compositions are often required.
01059Biblical LiteratureBiblical Literature courses have the same aim as general literature courses (to improve students’ language arts and critical-thinking skills), focusing on the books of the Bible. Students may compare techniques, styles, and themes of the various books; examine the Bible’s influence on secular literature; and may study historical events of Biblical times. Oral discussion is an integral part of these courses, and written compositions are often required.
01060Literature of an AuthorThese courses have the same aim as general literature courses (to improve students’ language arts and critical-thinking skills), focusing on a particular author and his or her work. Students determine the underlying assumptions and values within the selected works; compare techniques, styles, and themes of the author; and reflect upon the time period in which the author lived. Oral discussion is an integral part of literature courses, and written compositions are often required.
01061Literature of a GenreThese courses have the same aim as general literature courses (to improve students’ language arts and critical-thinking skills), focusing on one or several genres, such as poetry, essay, biography, short story, drama, and so on. Students determine the underlying assumptions and values within the selected works and also examine the structure, techniques, and intentions of the genre being studied. Oral discussion is an integral part of these genre-oriented courses, and written compositions are often required.
01062Literature of a PeriodThese courses have the same aim as general literature courses (to improve students’ language arts and critical-thinking skills), focusing on the literature written during or reflecting a particular time period (such as the French Revolution, the 1960s, or the 20th century). Students determine the underlying assumptions and values within the selected works, reflect upon the influence of societal events and social attitudes, and compare the points of view of various authors. Oral discussion is an integral part of literature courses, and written compositions are often required.
01063Literature of a PlaceThese courses have the same aim as general literature courses (to improve students’ language arts and critical-thinking skills), focusing on a particular geographic region. Students determine the underlying assumptions and values within the selected works; study how the literature reflects the land, society, and history of the region; and may study the influence of this literature on others. Oral discussion is an integral part of literature courses, and written compositions are often required.
01064Literature of a People These courses have the same aim as general literature courses (to improve students’ language arts and critical-thinking skills), but use literature written by authors who share a particular characteristic such as religion, culture, or gender. Students determine the underlying assumptions and values within the selected works, reflect upon the influence of a common characteristic, and compare the points of view of various authors. Oral discussion is an integral part of literature courses, and written compositions are often required.
01065Literature of a ThemeThese courses have the same aim as general literature courses (to improve students’ language arts and critical-thinking skills), but use selected literature to explore a particular theme as expressed from several points of view. Such themes might include The American Dream, Society and Self, Exploration, War and Peace, and the like.
01066Strategic Reading Strategic Reading courses are intended to improve a student’s vocabulary, critical-thinking and analysis skills, or reading rate and comprehension level. Although these courses typically emphasize works of fiction, they may also include works of nonfiction (including textbooks). Strategic Reading courses often have a time-management focus, offering strategies for note-taking or for understanding and evaluating the important points of a text.
01067Assisted Reading Assisted Reading courses offer students the opportunity to focus on their reading skills. Assistance is targeted to students’ particular weaknesses and is designed to bring students’ reading comprehension up to the desired level or to develop strategies to read more efficiently.
01068Corrective Reading Corrective Reading courses offer diagnostic and remedial activities designed to correct reading difficulties and habits that interfere with students’ progress in developing reading skills and understandings. Activities are chosen to increase or improve students’ reading comprehension, reading technique, and general literacy skills.
01097Literature—Independent Study Courses in Literature—Independent Study, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to literature. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
01098Literature—Workplace Experience Literature—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to English literature. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
01099Literature—Other Other Literature courses.
01101English/Composition (freshmen and sophomores) English/Composition (freshmen and sophomores) courses are designed for freshmen and/or sophomores and build upon previous writing skills. These courses seek to develop the writing processes and practices necessary for producing successful high school compositions. Students typically learn to write persuasive, critical, and creative multi-paragraph essays and compositions. While emphasizing composition, these courses may also incorporate some literature study to expose students to exemplary illustrations of various forms of writing.
01102English/Composition (juniors and seniors) English/Composition (juniors and seniors) courses are designed for juniors and/or seniors and build upon previous writing skills. Reinforcing the logic and critical-thinking skills that accompany good writing, these courses—which emphasize word choice, usage, and writing mechanics—provide continued and advanced instruction in writing for a variety of purposes and audiences. English/Composition (juniors and seniors) courses may emphasize college or business preparation; literature study may be offered as an additional component in which students analyze examples of several genres.
01103Composition Composition courses focus on students’ writing skills and develop their ability to compose different types of papers for a range of purposes and audiences. These courses enable students to explore and practice descriptive, narrative, persuasive, or expositive styles as they write paragraphs, essays, letters, applications, formal documented papers, or technical reports. Although composition courses may present some opportunities for creative writing, their focus usually remains on nonfiction, scholarly, or formal writing.
01104Creative Writing Creative Writing courses offer students the opportunity to develop and improve their technique and individual style in poetry, short story, drama, essays, and other forms of prose. The emphasis of the courses is on writing; however, students may study exemplary representations and authors to obtain a fuller appreciation of the form and craft. Although most creative writing classes cover several expressive forms, others concentrate exclusively on one particular form (such as poetry or playwriting).
01105Research/Technical Writing Research/Technical Writing classes prepare students to write research papers and/or technical reports. These classes emphasize researching (primary and secondary sources), organizing (material, thoughts, and arguments), and writing in a persuasive or technical style.
01128Writing (early childhood education)Writing (early childhood education) courses develop students’ readiness for language arts, particularly focusing on writing. Content is age appropriate and conforms to any existing state standards for early childhood education.
01129Writing (pre-kindergarten)Writing (pre-kindergarten) courses develop students’ readiness for language arts, particularly focusing on writing. Content is age appropriate and conforms to any existing state standards for pre-kindergarten education.
01130Writing (kindergarten)Writing (kindergarten) courses engage students in activities to develop their writing skills. Course content may emphasize storytelling or personal expression. Specific content depends upon state standards for kindergarten.
01131Writing (grade 1)Writing (grade 1) courses focus on writing skills and may emphasize recognition and creation of various types of text; extension of vocabulary and writing skills; and the connection of language to the expression of ideas. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 1.
01132Writing (grade 2)Writing (grade 2) courses focus on writing skills and may build students’ skills in independent writing by increasing writing fluency, vocabulary, and recognition of word and language patterns. They may also introduce or reinforce the rules of grammar and spelling. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 2.
01133Writing (grade 3)Writing (grade 3) courses focus on writing skills and may emphasize independent writing in a variety of assignments. Some emphasis may also be placed on presentation skills. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 3.
01134Writing (grade 4)Writing (grade 4) courses focus on writing skills and may emphasize independent writing in a variety of assignments and require students to respond to different materials in different ways. Grammar and usage of the English language may also be emphasized. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 4.
01135Writing (grade 5)Writing (grade 5) courses focus on writing skills and may extend students’ skills in writing for particular purposes or audiences, distinguishing meaning and literary functions in texts, and fluency in writing. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 5.
01136Writing (grade 6)Writing (grade 6) courses build upon students’ prior knowledge and skill in writing and may emphasize the use of language for different effects, in different contexts, and for different purposes. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 6.
01137Writing (grade 7)Writing (grade 7) courses build upon students’ prior knowledge and skill in writing and may emphasize the use of language for different effects and to construct meaning and connections. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 7.
01138Writing (grade 8)Writing (grade 8) courses build upon students’ prior knowledge and skill in writing. Typically, these courses use writing exercises to expand students’ understanding of the different purposes of written communication. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 8.
01139Writing—GeneralWriting—General courses involve content that is not grade differentiated and may apply to a range of consecutive grades (e.g., “by third grade, students should know and be able to do…”). These courses include content that may be applicable to states or localities that do not employ grade-level content standards. [These courses provide broad content that is not organized as described elsewhere (i.e., Writing, early childhood education through grade 8).]
01147Composition—Independent Study Composition—Independent study, often conducted with instructors as mentors, allow students to explore particular topics within the field of language arts (emphasizing composition). Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
01148Composition—Workplace Experience Composition—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to English composition. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
01149Composition—Other Other Composition courses.
01151Public Speaking Public Speaking courses enable students, through practice, to develop communication skills that can be used in a variety of speaking situations (such as small and large group discussions, delivery of lectures or speeches in front of audiences, and so on). Course topics may include (but are not limited to) research and organization, writing for verbal delivery, stylistic choices, visual and presentation skills, analysis and critique, and development of self-confidence.
01152Forensic Speech—Inclusive Forensic Speech—Inclusive courses offer students the opportunity to learn how to use oral skills effectively in formal and informal situations. Students learn such skills as logic and reasoning, the organization of thought and supporting materials, and effective presentation of one’s voice and body. Often linked to an extracurricular program, these courses introduce students to numerous public speaking situations, and they learn the methods, aims, and styles of a variety of events (e.g., formal debate, Lincoln-Douglas debate, expository speaking, radio broadcast, oral interpretation, and dramatic interpretation). Participation in competition is encouraged, but not always required.
01153Forensic Speech—Debate Forensic Speech—Debate courses offer students the opportunity to learn how to use oral skills in formal and informal situations. In these courses, students are able to develop such skills as logic and reasoning, research and analysis, organization of thought and supporting materials, argumentative style and skill, and effective presentation of one’s voice and body. Often linked to an extracurricular program, these courses introduce students to the methods, aims, and styles used in various kinds of debates (formal debate or Lincoln-Douglas). Participation in competition is encouraged, but not always required.
01154Forensic Speech—Individual Event Forensic Speech—Individual Event courses offer students the opportunity to learn how to use oral skills in formal and informal situations. Topics included depend upon the event(s) being taught, but they usually emphasize effective presentation of one’s voice and body, thoughtful understanding and interpretation of literature, logic and reasoning, and the organization of thought and supporting materials. Often linked to an extracurricular program, these courses introduce students to one or several individual event categories (e.g., exposition, oral interpretation, dramatic interpretation, and radio broadcast). Participation in competition is encouraged, but not always required.
01155Communications Communications courses focus on the application of written and oral communication skills through a variety of formal and informal experiences. The courses are performance-based and emphasize effective interpersonal and team-building skills. Communications courses may also involve the study of how interpersonal communications are affected by stereotypes, nonverbal cues, vocabulary, and stylistic choices.
01156Applied English and Communications Applied English and Communications courses teach students communication skills—reading, writing, listening, speaking—concentrating on “real-world” applications. These courses usually emphasize the practical application of communication as a business tool—using technical reports and manuals, business letters, resumes, and applications as examples—rather than emphasize language arts skills as applied to scholarly and literary materials.
01197Speech—Independent StudySpeech—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, allow students to explore particular topics within the field of language arts (emphasizing speech). Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
01198Speech—Workplace Experience Speech—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to public speaking and speech. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
01199Speech—Other Other Speech courses.
01201English Morphology and Grammar English Morphology and Grammar courses involve the study of the English language—its roots and derivations, structure and sentence patterns, dialects, writing and spelling systems, and uses as a communication tool.
01202History of the English Language History of the English Language courses trace the development of English, concentrating on historical and cultural influences and how the language has changed over time. Although language roots, structures, and dialects may be examined, the emphasis remains on the process of language development rather than on morphology.
01203English—Test PreparationEnglish—Test Preparation courses provide students with activities in analytical thinking and with the skills and strategies associated with standardized test taking. Topics covered include vocabulary, reading comprehension, and writing strategies, as well as time management, scoring procedures, and dealing with test-related stress. Course materials may include national and state standardized test review materials (such as ACT, SAT, or PSAT test review materials), current assessment software programs, and previous standardized examinations.
01992English Proficiency Development English Proficiency Development courses are designed to assist students in acquiring the skills necessary to pass proficiency examinations.
01995English Language and Literature—Aide English Language and Literature—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
01996English Language and Literature—SupplementalEnglish Language and Literature—Supplemental courses, designed to be taken in addition to or in coordination with other English language and literature courses, provide instruction to assist students in acquiring English language arts skills so that students attain necessary grade-level skills or reach a desired competency level.
01997English Language and Literature—Independent Study English Language and Literature—Independent study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, allow students to explore particular topics within the field of language arts. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
01998English Language and Literature—Workplace ExperienceEnglish Language and Literature—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to English language or literature. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
01999English Language and Literature—Other Other English Language and Literature courses.
02001Informal Mathematics Informal Mathematics courses emphasize the teaching of mathematics as problem solving, communication, and reasoning, and highlight the connections among mathematical topics and between mathematics and other disciplines. These courses approach the teaching of general math, pre-algebra, and pre-geometry topics by applying numbers, and algebraic and geometric concepts and relationships to real world problems.
02002General Math General Math courses reinforce and expand students' foundational math skills, such as arithmetic operations using rational numbers; area, perimeter, and volume of geometric figures, congruence and similarity, angle relationships, the Pythagorean theorem, the rectangular coordinate system, sets and logic, ratio and proportion, estimation, formulas, solving and graphing simple equations and inequalities.
02003Particular Topics in Foundation MathThese courses examine particular topics in Foundation Math, such as arithmetic, sequences, or basic conceptual skills, rather than provide a general overview.
02028Mathematics (early childhood education)Mathematics (early childhood education) courses cover foundational skills and concepts related to mathematics. Content is age appropriate and conforms to any existing state standards for early childhood education.
02029Mathematics (pre-kindergarten)Mathematics (pre-kindergarten) courses cover foundational skills and concepts related to mathematics. Content is age appropriate and conforms to any existing state standards for pre-kindergarten education.
02030Mathematics (kindergarten)Mathematics (kindergarten) courses typically introduce and reinforce basic concepts of mathematics such as counting whole numbers and understanding patterns, time, and money. Specific content depends upon state standards for kindergarten.
02031Mathematics (grade 1)Mathematics (grade 1) courses typically help build a conceptual foundation in number, operation, and quantitative reasoning; patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking; geometry and spatial reasoning; and measurement. These courses often require students to develop their numerical fluency and to make calculation predictions. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 1.
02032Mathematics (grade 2)Mathematics (grade 2) courses typically continue to build a conceptual foundation in number, operation, and quantitative reasoning; patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking; geometry and spatial reasoning; and measurement. These courses often require students to develop their numerical fluency, particularly in addition and subtraction, and to solve problems using those operations as well as estimation. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 2.
02033Mathematics (grade 3)Mathematics (grade 3) courses typically emphasize number, operation, and quantitative reasoning; patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking; geometry and spatial reasoning; and measurement. These courses often require students to improve their numerical fluency, adding multiplication and division to addition and subtraction operations, using whole numbers and parts (quarters, thirds, halves), and estimation. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 3.
02034Mathematics (grade 4)Mathematics (grade 4) courses typically emphasize number, operation, and quantitative reasoning; patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking; geometry and spatial reasoning; and measurement. Course content may include activities that help students increase operational fluency, make connections between abstract symbols and concrete events or concepts, or present conclusions based on data. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 4.
02035Mathematics (grade 5)Mathematics (grade 5) courses typically emphasize number, operation, and quantitative reasoning; patterns, relationships, and algebraic thinking; geometry and spatial reasoning; and measurement. Course content may include activities that help students increase operational fluency, make connections between abstract symbols and concrete events or concepts, or present their mathematical reasoning. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 5.
02036Mathematics (grade 6)Mathematics (grade 6) courses typically emphasize skills in numerical operations (including basic operations and their proper order); measurement; patterns; simple functions; geometry; and concepts of data analysis, including statistics and probability. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 6.
02037Mathematics (grade 7)Mathematics (grade 7) courses typically emphasize proficiency in skills involving numbers and operations; measurement; patterns; functions; algebraic formulas; geometry; and concepts of data analysis, including statistics and probability. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 7.
02038Mathematics (grade 8)Mathematics (grade 8) courses typically emphasize proficiency in skills involving numbers and operations, measurement, patterns, simple functions, algebra, geometry, statistics, and probability. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 8.
02039Mathematics—General Mathematics—General courses involve content that is not grade differentiated and may apply to a range of consecutive grades (e.g., "by third grade, students should know and be able to do…"). These courses include content that may be applicable to states or localities that do not employ grade-level content standards. [These courses provide broad content that is not organized as described elsewhere (i.e., Mathematics, early childhood education through grade 8).]
02047Foundation Math—Independent Study Foundation Math—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to foundation mathematics. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
02049Foundation Math—Other Other Foundation Math courses.
02051Pre-Algebra Pre-Algebra courses increase students' foundational math skills and prepare them for Algebra I by covering a variety of topics, such as properties of rational numbers (i.e., number theory), ratio, proportion, estimation, exponents and radicals, the rectangular coordinate system, sets and logic, formulas, and solving first-degree equations and inequalities.
02052Algebra IAlgebra I courses include the study of properties and operations of the real number system; evaluating rational algebraic expressions; solving and graphing first degree equations and inequalities; translating word problems into equations; operations with and factoring of polynomials; and solving simple quadratic equations.
02053Algebra I—Part 1 The first part in a multi-part sequence of Algebra I. This course generally covers the same topics as the first semester of Algebra I, including the study of properties of rational numbers (i.e., number theory), ratio, proportion, and estimation, exponents and radicals, the rectangular coordinate system, sets and logic, formulas, and solving first degree equations and inequalities.
02054Algebra I—Part 2 The second part in a multi-part sequence of Algebra I. This course generally covers the same topics as the second semester of Algebra I, including the study of properties of the real number system and operations, evaluating rational algebraic expressions, solving and graphing first degree equations and inequalities, translating word problems into equations, operations with and factoring of polynomials, and solving simple quadratics.
02055Transition Algebra Transition Algebra courses review and extend algebra and geometry concepts for students who have already taken Algebra I and Geometry. Transition Algebra courses include a review of such topics as properties and operations of real numbers; evaluation of rational algebraic expressions; solutions and graphs of first degree equations and inequalities; translation of word problems into equations; operations with and factoring of polynomials; simple quadratics; properties of plane and solid figures; rules of congruence and similarity; coordinate geometry including lines, segments, and circles in the coordinate plane; and angle measurement in triangles including trigonometric ratios.
02056Algebra II Algebra II course topics typically include field properties and theorems; set theory; operations with rational and irrational expressions; factoring of rational expressions; in-depth study of linear equations and inequalities; quadratic equations; solving systems of linear and quadratic equations; graphing of constant, linear, and quadratic equations; properties of higher degree equations; and operations with rational and irrational exponents.
02057Algebra III Algebra III courses review and extend algebraic concepts for students who have already taken Algebra II. Course topics include (but are not limited to) operations with rational and irrational expressions, factoring of rational expressions, linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations, solving systems of linear and quadratic equations, properties of higher degree equations, and operations with rational and irrational exponents. The courses may introduce topics in discrete math, elementary probability and statistics; matrices and determinants; and sequences and series.
02058Particular Topics in Algebra These courses examine a specific topic in algebra, such as linear equations or rational numbers, rather than provide an overview of algebra concepts.
02061Integrated Math—multi-year equivalent Integrated Math courses emphasize the teaching of mathematics as problem solving, communication, and reasoning, and emphasize the connections among mathematical topics and between mathematics and other disciplines. The multi-period sequence of Integrated Math replaces the traditional Algebra I, Geometry, Algebra II sequence of courses, and usually covers the following topics during a three- or four-year sequence: algebra, functions, geometry from both a synthetic and an algebraic perspective, trigonometry, statistics and probability, discrete mathematics, the conceptual underpinnings of calculus, and mathematical structure.
02069Algebra—Other Other Algebra courses.
02071Informal Geometry Informal Geometry courses emphasize a practical approach to the study of geometry and deemphasize an abstract, formal approach. Topics typically include properties of and work with plane and solid figures; inductive methods of reasoning and use of logic; concepts of congruence, similarity, parallelism, perpendicularity, and proportion; and rules of angle measurement in triangles.
02072Geometry Geometry courses, emphasizing an abstract, formal approach to the study of geometry, typically include topics such as properties of plane and solid figures; deductive methods of reasoning and use of logic; geometry as an axiomatic system including the study of postulates, theorems, and formal proofs; concepts of congruence, similarity, parallelism, perpendicularity, and proportion; and rules of angle measurement in triangles.
02073Analytic Geometry Analytic Geometry courses include the study of the nature and intersection of lines and planes in space, including vectors, the polar coordinate system, equations and graphs of conic sections, rotations and transformations, and parametric equations.
02074Principles of Algebra and Geometry Principles of Algebra and Geometry courses combine the study of some pre-algebra and algebra topics with introductory geometry topics. These courses include the study of formulas, algebraic expressions, first degree equations and inequalities, the rectangular coordinate system, area, perimeter, and volume of geometric figures, and properties of triangles and circles.
02075Particular Topics in Geometry These courses examine specific topics in geometry, such as solid or technical geometry, rather than provide a general study of the field of geometry.
02079Geometry—Other Other Geometry courses.
02101Number Theory Number Theory courses review the properties and uses of integers and prime numbers, and extend this information to congruences and divisibility.
02102Discrete Mathematics Discrete Mathematics courses include the study of topics such as number theory, discrete probability, set theory, symbolic logic, Boolean algebra, combinatorics, recursion, basic algebraic structures and graph theory.
02103Trigonometry Trigonometry courses prepare students for eventual work in calculus and typically include the following topics: trigonometric and circular functions; their inverses and graphs; relations among the parts of a triangle; trigonometric identities and equations; solutions of right and oblique triangles; and complex numbers.
02104Math Analysis Math Analysis courses include the study of polynomial, logarithmic, exponential, and rational functions and their graphs; vectors; set theory; Boolean algebra and symbolic logic; mathematical induction; matrix algebra; sequences and series; and limits and continuity. They may also include some study of trigonometry and/or pre-calculus topics.
02105Trigonometry/Math Analysis Covering topics of both Trigonometry and Math Analysis, these courses prepare students for eventual work in calculus. Topics typically include the study of right trigonometric and circular functions, inverses, and graphs; trigonometric identities and equations; solutions of right and oblique triangles; complex numbers; numerical tables; polynomial, logarithmic, exponential, and rational functions and their graphs; vectors; set theory; Boolean algebra and symbolic logic; mathematical induction; matrix algebra; sequences and series; and limits and continuity.
02106Trigonometry/Algebra Trigonometry/Algebra courses combine trigonometry and advanced algebra topics, and are usually intended for students who have attained Algebra I and Geometry objectives. Topics typically include right trigonometric and circular functions, inverses, and graphs; trigonometric identities and equations; solutions of right and oblique triangles; complex numbers; numerical tables; field properties and theorems; set theory; operations with rational and irrational expressions; factoring of rational expressions; in-depth study of linear equations and inequalities; quadratic equations; solving systems of linear and quadratic equations; graphing of constant, linear, and quadratic equations; and properties of higher degree equations.
02107Trigonometry/Analytic Geometry Covering topics of both Trigonometry and Analytic Geometry, these courses prepare students for eventual work in calculus. Topics typically include the study of right trigonometric and circular functions, inverses, and graphs; trigonometric identities and equations; solutions of right and oblique triangles; complex numbers; numerical tables; vectors; the polar coordinate system; equations and graphs of conic sections; rotations and transformations; and parametric equations.
02108Math Analysis/Analytic Geometry Covering topics from both Math Analysis and Analytic Geometry, these courses prepare students for eventual work in calculus. Topics include the study of polynomial, logarithmic, exponential, and rational functions and their graphs; vectors; set theory; Boolean algebra and symbolic logic; mathematical induction; matrix algebra; sequences and series; and limits and continuity; the polar coordinate system; equations and graphs of conic sections; rotations and transformations; and parametric equations.
02109Elementary Functions Elementary Functions courses, while preparing students for eventual work in calculus, include the study of relations and functions, including polynomial, logarithmic, exponential, rational, right trigonometric, and circular functions, and their inverses, graphs, and applications.
02110Pre-Calculus Pre-Calculus courses combine the study of Trigonometry, Elementary Functions, Analytic Geometry, and Math Analysis topics as preparation for calculus. Topics typically include the study of complex numbers; polynomial, logarithmic, exponential, rational, right trigonometric, and circular functions, and their relations, inverses and graphs; trigonometric identities and equations; solutions of right and oblique triangles; vectors; the polar coordinate system; conic sections; Boolean algebra and symbolic logic; mathematical induction; matrix algebra; sequences and series; and limits and continuity.
02111Linear Algebra Linear Algebra courses include a study of matrices, vectors, tensors, and linear transformations and are typically intended for students who have attained pre-calculus objectives.
02112Linear Programming Linear Programming courses include a study of mathematical modeling and the simplex method to solve linear inequalities and are typically intended for students who have attained pre-calculus objectives.
02113Abstract Algebra Abstract Algebra courses include a study of the properties of the number system from an abstract perspective, including such topics as number fields (i.e., rational, real, and complex numbers), integral domains, rings, groups, polynomials, and the fundamental theorem of algebra. Abstract Algebra is typically geared towards students who have attained pre-calculus objectives.
02121Calculus Calculus courses include the study of derivatives, differentiation, integration, the definite and indefinite integral, and applications of calculus. Typically, students have previously attained knowledge of pre-calculus topics (some combination of trigonometry, elementary functions, analytic geometry, and math analysis).
02122Multivariate Calculus Multivariate Calculus courses include the study of hyperbolic functions, improper integrals, directional directives, and multiple integration and its applications.
02123Differential Calculus Differential Calculus courses include the study of elementary differential equations including first- and higher-order differential equations, partial differential equations, linear equations, systems of linear equations, transformations, series solutions, numerical methods, boundary value problems, and existence theorems.
02124AP Calculus AB Following the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to parallel college-level calculus courses, AP Calculus AB provides students with an understanding of the concepts of calculus and experience with its methods and applications. These courses introduce calculus and include the following topics: functions, graphs, limits, and continuity; differential calculus (including definition, application, and computation of the derivative; derivative at a point; derivative as a function; and second derivatives); and integral calculus (including definite integrals and antidifferentiation).
02125AP Calculus BC Following the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to parallel college-level calculus courses, AP Calculus BC courses provide students with an understanding of the concepts of calculus and experience with its methods and applications. These courses cover all of the calculus topics in AP Calculus AB as well as the following topics: parametric, polar, and vector functions; applications of integrals; and polynomial approximations and series, including series of constants and Taylor series. See SCED Code 02124 for more details.
02126Particular Topics in Calculus These courses examine specific topics in calculus (such as integral calculus, special functions or series, or the applications of calculus to mathematical modeling), rather than provide a general overview of calculus.
02131IB Mathematical Studies IB Mathematical Studies courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Mathematical Studies exam at the standard level. Intended to provide students with the skills to cope with the mathematical demands of a technological society, course topics include linear, quadratic, and exponential functions, solutions, and graphs; descriptive statistics; statistical applications; data analysis, including collection, calculation, and presentation of data; set operations, logic, and probability; geometry and trigonometry; mathematical models; and introduction to differential calculus.
02132IB Mathematics IB Mathematics courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Mathematics exams at the standard or higher level. Topics include operations and properties of number sets; trigonometric functions, equations, and graphs; algebra and coordinate geometry; simultaneous linear equations; polynomial and quadratic functions and equations; calculus, including bilinear, exponential and logarithmic functions; two dimensional vectors; and statistics and probability. Advanced content may include discrete mathematics; sets, relations, and groups; or additional calculus topics.
02134IB Further Mathematics—HL IB Further Mathematics—HL courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Further Mathematics at the higher level. Designed to advance students knowledge of IB Mathematics—HL, course topics include linear algebra; geometry; statistics and probability; sets, relations and groups; calculus; and discrete mathematics. This course was previously offered at the standard level, but is now offered as a higher level course.
02135IB Mathematics, Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Mathematics, Middle Years Program courses are built on a framework of five branches of mathematics: number, algebra, geometry and trigonometry, statistics and probability, and discrete mathematics. The program encourages students to develop an understanding of mathematical reasoning and processes, the ability to apply mathematics and evaluate the significance of results, the ability to develop strategies for problems in which solutions are not obvious, and the acquisition of mathematical intuition.
02141Particular Topics in Analytic Mathematics These courses examine particular topics in analytic mathematics (such as mathematical proofs and structures or numerical analysis), not otherwise described above.
02149Analytic Mathematics—Other Other Analytic Mathematics courses.
02151General Applied Math General Applied Math courses reinforce general math skills, extend these skills to include some pre-algebra and algebra topics, and use these skills in a variety of practical, consumer, business, and occupational applications. Course topics typically include rational numbers, measurement, basic statistics, ratio and proportion, basic geometry, formulas, and simple equations.
02152Occupationally Applied Math Occupationally Applied Math courses reinforce general math skills, extend these skills to include some pre-algebra and algebra topics, and use these skills primarily in occupational applications. Course topics typically include rational numbers, measurement, basic statistics, ratio and proportion, basic geometry, formulas, and simple equations.
02153Technical Math Technical Math courses extend students' proficiency in mathematics, and often apply these skills to technical and/or industrial situations and problems. Technical Math topics may include but are not limited to rational numbers, systems of measurements, tolerances, numerical languages, geometry, algebra, statistics, and using tables, graphs, charts, and other data displays. Technology is integrated as appropriate.
02154Business Math Business Math courses reinforce general math skills, emphasize speed and accuracy in computations, and use these skills in a variety of business applications. Business Math courses reinforce general math topics (e.g., arithmetic, measurement, statistics, ratio and proportion, exponents, formulas, and simple equations) by applying these skills to business problems and situations; applications might include wages, hourly rates, payroll deductions, sales, receipts, accounts payable and receivable, financial reports, discounts, and interest.
02155Business Math with Algebra Business Math with Algebra courses teach and have students apply algebra concepts to a variety of business and financial situations. Applications usually include income, insurance, credit, banking, taxation, stocks and bonds, and finance.
02156Computer Math with Algebra Intended for students who have attained the objectives of Algebra I, Computer Math—Algebra I level courses include a study of computer systems and programming, and use the computer to solve math problems.
02157Consumer Math Consumer Math courses reinforce general math topics (such as arithmetic using rational numbers, measurement, ratio and proportion, and basic statistics) and apply these skills to consumer problems and situations. Applications typically include budgeting, taxation, credit, banking services, insurance, buying and selling products and services, home and/or car ownership and rental, managing personal income, and investment.
02201Probability and Statistics Probability and Statistics courses introduce the study of likely events and the analysis, interpretation, and presentation of quantitative data. Course topics generally include basic probability and statistics: discrete probability theory, odds and probabilities, probability trees, populations and samples, frequency tables, measures of central tendency, and presentation of data (including graphs). Course topics may also include normal distribution and measures of variability.
02202Inferential Probability and Statistics Probability and Statistics courses focus on descriptive statistics, with an introduction to inferential statistics. Topics typically include event probability, normal probability distribution, collection and description of data, frequency tables and graphs, measures of central tendency and variability, random variables, and random sampling. Course topics may also include covariance and correlation, central limit theorem, confidence intervals, and hypothesis testing.
02203AP Statistics Following the College Board's suggested curriculum designed to parallel college-level statistics courses, AP Statistics courses introduce students to the major concepts and tools for collecting, analyzing, and drawing conclusions from data. Students are exposed to four broad conceptual themes: exploring data, sampling and experimentation, anticipating patterns, and statistical inference.
02204Particular Topics in Probability and Statistics These courses examine particular topics in Probability and Statistics, such as regression or hierarchical linear modeling, rather than provide a general overview.
02207Probability and Statistics—Independent Study Probability and Statistics—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore mathematics topics of interest. These courses may be offered in conjunction with other rigorous math courses, or may serve as an opportunity to explore a topic of special interest. They may also serve as an opportunity to study for AP exams if the school does not offer specific courses for that endeavor.
02209Probability and Statistics—Other Other Probability and Statistics courses.
02991History of Math History of Math courses include a study of the historical development of numbers, computation, algebra, and geometry. Figures critical to the development of mathematics (e.g., Pythagoras, Pascal, Descartes) or important developments (e.g., pi, decimal fractions, probability theory, calculus) often form the backbone of these classes.
02993Mathematics—Test PreparationMathematics—Test Preparation courses provide students with activities in analytical thinking and with the skills and strategies associated with standardized test taking (such as the PSAT, SAT, and ACT). Topics covered include strategies for arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and quantitative comparison problems as well as time management, scoring procedures, calculator usage, and management of test-related stress.
02994Mathematics Proficiency Development Mathematics Proficiency Development courses are designed to assist students in acquiring the skills necessary to pass proficiency examinations.
02995Mathematics—Aide Mathematics—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course materials. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
02996Mathematics—SupplementalMathematics—Supplemental courses, designed to be taken in addition to or in coordination with other mathematics courses, provide instruction to assist students in acquiring mathematic skills so that students attain necessary grade-level skills or reach a desired competency level.
02997Mathematics—Independent Study Mathematics—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to mathematics. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
02998Mathematics—Workplace Experience Mathematics—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to mathematics. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
02999Mathematics—Other Other Mathematics courses.
03001Earth Science Earth Science courses offer insight into the environment on earth and the earth’s environment in space. While presenting the concepts and principles essential to students’ understanding of the dynamics and history of the earth, these courses usually explore oceanography, geology, astronomy, meteorology, and geography.
03002Geology Geology courses provide an in-depth study of the forces that formed and continue to affect the earth’s surface. Earthquakes, volcanoes, and erosion are examples of topics that are presented.
03003Environmental Science Environmental Science courses examine the mutual relationships between organisms and their environment. In studying the interrelationships among plants, animals, and humans, these courses usually cover the following subjects: photosynthesis, recycling and regeneration, ecosystems, population and growth studies, pollution, and conservation of natural resources.
03004Astronomy Astronomy courses offer students the opportunity to study the solar system, stars, galaxies, and interstellar bodies. These courses usually introduce and use astronomic instruments and typically explore theories regarding the origin and evolution of the universe, space, and time.
03005Marine Science Courses in Marine Science focus on the content, features, and possibilities of the earth’s oceans. They explore marine organisms, conditions, and ecology and sometimes cover marine mining, farming, and exploration.
03006Meteorology Meteorology courses examine the properties of the earth’s atmosphere. Topics usually include atmospheric layering, changing pressures, winds, water vapor, air masses, fronts, temperature changes and weather forecasting.
03007Physical Geography Physical Geography courses equip students with an understanding of the constraints and possibilities that the physical environment places on human development. These courses include discussion of the physical landscape through geomorphology and topography, the patterns and processes of climate and weather, and natural resources.
03008Earth and Space Science Earth and Space Science courses introduce students to the study of the earth from a local and global perspective. In these courses, students typically learn about time zones, latitude and longitude, atmosphere, weather, climate, matter, and energy transfer. Advanced topics often include the study of the use of remote sensing, computer visualization, and computer modeling to enable earth scientists to understand earth as a complex and changing planet.
03009Particular Topics in Earth ScienceParticular Topics in Earth Science courses concentrate on a particular subtopic within the field of earth science (such as mineralology) that is not otherwise described within this classification system.
03010Earth/Space Science (prior-to-secondary)Earth/Space Science (prior-to-secondary) covers basic principles of earth and space science. These may include plate tectonics, rocks and the rock cycle, weather, ocean currents, movements of the Earth, moon, and planets, components of the galaxy and universe, or other topics consistent with state academic standards for earth and space science.
03011Physical Science (prior-to-secondary)Physical Science (prior-to-secondary) courses cover basic principles of physical science, such as matter, energy, force, and motion. Topics may include conservation of energy and matter, the atomic model, the periodic table, electricity, or other topics consistent with state academic standards for physical science.
03012Energy and the EnvironmentEnergy and the Environment courses expose students to the scientific principles associated with energy transformation, collection, extraction, transmission and storage. Course content may emphasize energy’s significance in society and the effects of its use on the environment. Topics may include the distribution, availability, patterns of use, and environmental impacts of energy resources.
03047Earth Science—Independent StudyEarth Science—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore scientific topics of interest, using advanced methods of scientific inquiry and experimentation. These courses may be offered in conjunction with other science courses or may serve as an opportunity to explore a topic of special interest.
03048Earth Science—Workplace Experience Earth Science—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to earth science. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
03049Earth Science—Other Other Early Science courses.
03051Biology Biology courses are designed to provide information regarding the fundamental concepts of life and life processes. These courses include (but are not restricted to) such topics as cell structure and function, general plant and animal physiology, genetics, and taxonomy.
03052Biology—Advanced Studies Usually taken after a comprehensive initial study of biology, Biology—Advanced Studies courses cover biological systems in more detail. Topics that may be explored include cell organization, function, and reproduction; energy transformation; human anatomy and physiology; and the evolution and adaptation of organisms.
03053Anatomy and Physiology Usually taken after a comprehensive initial study of biology, Anatomy and Physiology courses present the human body and biological systems in more detail. In order to understand the structure of the human body and its functions, students learn anatomical terminology, study cells and tissues, explore functional systems (skeletal, muscular, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, reproductive, nervous, and so on), and may dissect mammals.
03054Anatomy Anatomy courses present an in-depth study of the human body and biological system. Students study such topics as anatomical terminology, cells, and tissues and typically explore functional systems such as skeletal, muscular, circulatory, respiratory, digestive, reproductive, and nervous systems.
03055Physiology Physiology courses examine all major systems, tissues, and muscle groups in the human body to help students understand how these systems interact and their role in maintaining homeostasis. These courses may also cover such topics as cell structure and function, metabolism, and the human life cycle.
03056AP Biology Adhering to the curricula recommended by the College Board and designed to parallel college-level introductory biology courses, AP Biology courses emphasize four general concepts: evolution; cellular processes (energy and communication); genetics and information transfer; and interactions of biological systems. For each concept, these courses emphasize the development of scientific inquiry and reasoning skills, such as designing a plan for collecting data, analyzing data, applying mathematical routines, and connecting concepts in and across domains. AP Biology courses include college-level laboratory investigations.
03057IB Biology IB Biology courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Biology exams at either the standard or higher level. In keeping with the general aim of IB Experimental Sciences courses, IB Biology promotes understanding of the facts, principles, and concepts underlying the biological field; critical analysis, evaluation, and generation of scientific information and hypotheses; improved ability to communicate scientific ideas; and an awareness of the impact of biology and scientific advances in biology upon both society and issues of ethical, philosophical, and political importance. Course content varies, but includes study of statistical analysis, cells, the chemistry of life, genetics, ecology and evolution, and human health and physiology. Laboratory experimentation is an essential component of these courses.
03058Botany Botany courses provide students with an understanding of plants, their life cycles, and their evolutionary relationships.
03059Genetics Genetics courses provide students with an understanding of general concepts concerning genes, heredity, and variation of organisms. Course topics typically include chromosomes, the structure of DNA and RNA molecules, and dominant and recessive inheritance and may also include lethal alleles, epistasis and hypostasis, and polygenic inheritance.
03060Microbiology Microbiology courses provide students with a general understanding of microbes, prokaryotic and euaryotic cells, and the three domain systems. Additional topics covered may include bacterial control, cell structure, fungi, protozoa, viruses and immunity, microbial genetics, and metabolism.
03061Zoology Zoology courses provide students with an understanding of animals, the niche they occupy in their environment or habitat, their life cycles, and their evolutionary relationships to other organisms. These courses should also help students develop an awareness and understanding of biotic communities.
03062Conceptual Biology These courses provide students with a basic understanding of living things. Topics covered may include ecology and environmental problems such as overpopulation and pollution as well as cells, types of organisms, evolutionary behavior, and inheritance.
03063Particular Topics in Biology Particular Topics in Biology courses concentrate on a particular subtopic within the field of biology (such as botany, zoology, genetics, and so on) that is not otherwise described within this classification system.
03064Regional BiologyRegional Biology courses are designed to provide information regarding the fundamental concepts of life and life processes as related to the local environment. Course topics may include nature appreciation, local flora and fauna, biology, and zoology.
03065IB Sports, Exercise, and Health ScienceIB Sports, Exercise, and Health Science courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Sports, Exercise, and Health Science exam at the standard level. These courses are designed to provide students with an understanding of the science of physical performance. Course topics may include anatomy and physiology, biomechanics, psychology and nutrition, and the measurement and evaluation of human performance.
03066PLTW Principles of Biomedical ScienceFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Principles of Biomedical Science courses focus on a case study in which students investigate the cause of death of a fictional person. Students conduct research, in which they examine autopsy reports, review medical history, and study human physiology, biology, and medicine to diagnose and recommend treatments that could have been applied.
03067PLTW Human Body Systems Following Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Human Body Systems courses are designed for students to assume the role of biomedical professionals to solve real-world medical cases and experience science in action. In these courses, students study the interactions of systems within the human body by building organs and tissues on a skeletal manikin and use data acquisition software to monitor bodily functions. Course content also includes the exploration of identity, power, movement, protection, and homeostasis.
03068PLTW Medical InterventionsFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Medical Interventions courses focus on the health of a fictitious family that students must support by providing disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatments. In these courses, students study infections, human DNA code, cancer treatment, and organ failure. Course topics may also include immunology, surgery, genetics, pharmacology, medical devices, and diagnostics.
03097Biology—Independent StudyBiology—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore scientific topics of interest, using advanced methods of scientific inquiry and experimentation. These courses may be offered in conjunction with other science courses or may serve as an opportunity for students to explore a topic of special interest.
03098Biology—Workplace Experience Biology—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to biology. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
03099Biology—Other Other Biology courses.
03101Chemistry Chemistry courses involve studying the composition, properties, and reactions of substances. These courses typically explore such concepts as the behaviors of solids, liquids, and gases; acid/base and oxidation/reduction reactions; and atomic structure. Chemical formulas and equations and nuclear reactions are also studied.
03102Chemistry—Advanced Studies Usually taken after a comprehensive initial study of chemistry, Chemistry—Advanced Studies courses cover chemical properties and interactions in more detail. Advanced chemistry topics include organic chemistry, thermodynamics, electrochemistry, macromolecules, kinetic theory, and nuclear chemistry.
03103Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry courses involve the study of organic molecules and functional groups. Topics covered may include nomenclature, bonding molecular structure and reactivity, reaction mechanisms, and current spectroscopic techniques.
03104Physical Chemistry Usually taken after completing a calculus course, Physical Chemistry courses cover chemical kinetics, quantum mechanics, molecular structure, molecular spectroscopy, and statistical mechanics.
03105Conceptual Chemistry Conceptual Chemistry courses are practical, nonquantitative chemistry courses designed for students who desire an understanding of chemical concepts and applications.
03106AP Chemistry Following the curricula recommended by the College Board, AP Chemistry courses usually follow high school chemistry and second-year algebra. Concepts covered may include the structure of matter; bonding of intermolecular forces; chemical reactions; kinetics; thermodynamics; and chemical equilibrium. For each concept, these courses emphasize the development of scientific inquiry and reasoning skills, such as designing a plan for collecting data, analyzing data, applying mathematical routines, and connecting concepts in and across domains. AP Chemistry courses include college-level laboratory investigations.
03107IB Chemistry IB Chemistry courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Chemistry exams at either the standard or higher level. In keeping with the general aim of IB Experimental Sciences courses, IB Chemistry promotes understanding of the facts, patterns, and principles underlying the field of chemistry; critical analysis, evaluation, prediction, and generation of scientific information and hypotheses; improved ability to communicate scientific ideas; and an awareness of the impact of chemistry and scientific advances in chemistry upon both society and issues of ethical, philosophical, and political importance. Course content varies, but includes the study of quantitative and organic chemistry; atomic structure, periodicity, bonding, energetics, kinetics, equilibrium, acids and bases, oxidations and reduction, and measurement and data processing. Laboratory experimentation is an essential part of these courses.
03108Particular Topics in Chemistry Particular Topics in Chemistry courses concentrate on a particular subtopic within the field of chemistry (such as chromatography and spectrometry) that is not otherwise described in this classification system.
03147Chemistry—Independent Study Chemistry—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore scientific topics of interest, using advanced methods of scientific inquiry and experimentation. These courses may be offered in conjunction with other rigorous science courses or may serve as an opportunity to explore a topic of special interest.
03148Chemistry—Workplace Experience Chemistry—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to chemistry. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
03149Chemistry—Other Other Chemistry courses.
03151Physics Physics courses involve the study of the forces and laws of nature affecting matter, such as equilibrium, motion, momentum, and the relationships between matter and energy. The study of physics includes examination of sound, light, and magnetic and electric phenomena.
03152Physics—Advanced Studies Usually taken after a comprehensive initial study of physics, Physics—Advanced Studies courses provide instruction in laws of conservation, thermodynamics, and kinetics; wave and particle phenomena; electromagnetic fields; and fluid dynamics.
03153Principles of TechnologyPrinciples of Technology courses focus on the study of the forces and laws of nature and their application to modern technology. Equilibrium, motion, momentum, energy conversion, electromagnetism, and optical phenomena are presented in the context of current, real-world applications. Demonstrations, math labs, and applied laboratory experiments are an integral part of the Principles of Technology curriculum. These courses may enable students to gain a solid foundation for careers in electronics, robotics, telecommunications, and other technological fields.
03155AP Physics B AP Physics B courses are designed by the College Board to parallel college-level physics courses that provide a systematic introduction to the main principles of physics and emphasize problem solving without calculus. Course content includes Newtonian mechanics, fluid mechanics and thermal physics, electricity and magnetism, waves and optics, and atomic and nuclear physics.
03156AP Physics C AP Physics C courses prepare students for the College Board’s examinations in Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism and Physics C: Mechanics. These courses parallel college-level physics courses that serve as a partial foundation for science or engineering majors and primarily focus on mechanics and electricity and magnetism, with approximately equal emphasis placed on these two areas. See SCED Codes 03163 and 03164 for detailed content descriptions.
03157IB Physics IB Physics courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Physics exams at either the standard or higher level. In keeping with the general aim of IB Experimental Sciences courses, IB Physics promotes understanding of the facts, patterns, and principles underlying the field of physics; critical analysis, prediction, and application of scientific information and hypotheses; improved ability to communicate scientific ideas; and an awareness of the impact of scientific advances in physics upon both society and issues of ethical, philosophical, and political importance. Course content varies, but includes the study of physical measurement; mechanics; thermal, atomic, and nuclear physics; oscillations and waves; electric currents; fields and forces; and energy, power, and climate change. Laboratory experimentation is essential; calculus may be used in some courses.
03158Life ScienceLife Science courses cover the basic principles of life and life processes. These topics may include cells, species, ecosystems, reproduction, genetics, or other topics consistent with state academic standards for life science.
03159Physical Science Physical Science courses involve study of the structures and states of matter. Typically (but not always) offered as introductory survey courses, they may include such topics as forms of energy, wave phenomenon, electromagnetism, and physical and chemical interactions.
03161Conceptual Physics Conceptual Physics courses introduce students to the use of chemicals, characteristic properties of materials, and simple mechanics to better describe the world and nonliving matter. The courses emphasize precise measurements and descriptive analysis of experimental results. Topics covered may include energy and motion, electricity, magnetism, heat, the structure of matter, and how matter reacts to materials and forces.
03162Particular Topics in Physics Particular Topics in Physics courses concentrate on a particular subtopic within the field of physics (such as optics, thermodynamics, quantum physics, and so on) that is not otherwise described in this classification system.
03163AP Physics C: Electricity and MagnetismDesigned by the College Board to parallel college-level physics courses that serve as a partial foundation for science or engineering majors, AP Physics C: Electricity and Magnetism courses focus on electricity and magnetism, including topics such as electrostatistics; conductors, capacitors, and dielectrics; electric circuits; magnetic fields; and electromagnetism. AP Physics C courses require the use of calculus to solve the problems posed.
03164AP Physics C: MechanicsDesigned by the College Board to parallel college-level physics courses that serve as a partial foundation for science or engineering majors, AP Physics C: Mechanics courses focus on classical mechanics, including topics in kinematics; Newton's laws of motion; work, energy, and power; systems of particles and linear momentum; circular motion and rotation; oscillations; and gravitation. AP Physics C courses require the use of calculus to solve the problems posed.
03165AP Physics 1Designed by the College Board to parallel first-semester college-level courses in algebra-based physics, AP Physics 1 courses focus on Newtonian mechanics (including rotational motion); work, energy, and power; mechanical waves and sound; and introductory circuits. These courses may also include college-level laboratory investigations.
03166AP Physics 2Designed by the College Board to parallel second-semester college-level courses in algebra-based physics, AP Physics 2 courses cover fluid statics and dynamics; thermodynamics with kinetic theory, PV diagrams and probability; electrostatics; electrical circuits with capacitors; magnetic fields; electromagnetism; physical and geometric optics; and quantum, atomic, and nuclear physics. These courses may also include college-level laboratory investigations.
03197Physics—Independent Study Physics—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore scientific topics of interest, using advanced methods of scientific inquiry and experimentation. These courses may be offered in conjunction with other rigorous science courses or may provide students with an opportunity to explore a topic of special interest.
03198Physics—Workplace Experience Physics—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to physics. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
03199Physics—Other Other Physics courses.
03201Integrated Science The specific content of Integrated Science courses varies, but they draw upon the principles of several scientific specialties—earth science, physical science, biology, chemistry, and physics—and organize the material around thematic units. Common themes covered include systems, models, energy, patterns, change, and constancy. These courses use appropriate aspects from each specialty to investigate applications of the theme.
03202Unified Science Unified Science courses combine more than one branch of science into a cohesive study or may integrate science with another discipline. General scientific concepts are explored, as are the principles underlying the scientific method and experimentation techniques.
03203Applied Biology/Chemistry Applied Biology/Chemistry courses integrate biology and chemistry into a unified domain of study and present the resulting body of knowledge in the context of work, home, society, and the environment, emphasizing field and laboratory activities. Topics include natural resources, water, air and other gases, nutrition, disease and wellness, plant growth and reproduction, life processes, microorganisms, synthetic materials, waste and waste management, and the community of life.
03204Technological Inquiry Technological Inquiry courses provide students with an understanding of the use of process skills as an integral part of scientific activity and technological development. Students learn how scientific phenomena are explained, measured, predicted, organized, and communicated.
03205Origins of Science Origins of Science courses explore the body of scientific knowledge and discoveries from an historical perspective, wherein students gain an understanding of how one discovery led to others or to entire revolutions of thought. In these courses, original experiments may be replicated, and students may study primary materials.
03206IB Design Technology IB Design Technology courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Design Technology exams at either the standard or higher level. In keeping with the general aim of IB Experimental Sciences courses, IB Design Technology courses promote using critical-thinking and design skills to solve problems in a practical context. Practical/investigative work centers on the design process; product design, development, and innovation; green design; materials; and evaluation.
03207AP Environmental Science AP Environmental Science courses are designed by the College Board to provide students with the scientific principles, concepts, and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world, identify and analyze environmental problems (both natural and human made), evaluate the relative risks associated with the problems, and examine alternative solutions for resolving and/or preventing them. Topics covered include science as a process, ecological processes and energy conversions, earth as an interconnected system, the impact of humans on natural systems, cultural and societal contexts of environmental problems, and the development of practices that will ensure sustainable systems.
03208IB Environmental Systems and SocietiesIB Environmental Systems courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Environmental Systems exam at the standard level by providing them with the knowledge, methods, and techniques to understand the nature and functioning of natural systems, the relationships that affect environmental equilibrium, and human impact on the biosphere. Topics also include ecosystem integrity and sustainability, students’ own relationships to the environment, and the nature of internationalism in resolving major environmental issues.
03209Aerospace Aerospace courses explore the connection between meteorology, astronomy, and flight across and around the earth as well as into outer space. In addition to principles of meteorology (e.g., atmosphere, pressures, winds and jet streams) and astronomical concepts (e.g., solar system, stars, and interplanetary bodies), course topics typically include the history of aviation, principles of aeronautical decisionmaking, airplane systems, aerodynamics, and flight theory.
03210Science, Technology and Society Science, Technology, and Society courses encourage students to explore and understand the ways in which science and technology shape culture, values, and institutions and how such factors, in turn, shape science and technology. Topics covered may include how science and technology enter society and how they change as a result of social processes.
03211Technical Science Technical Science courses introduce students to scientific tools and methods and provide an introduction to chemistry and physics. Topics covered typically include measurement conversion, model creation, use of scientific methods, interpretation of atoms, identification of the properties of common compounds, analysis of chemical equations, the impact of force on linear motion, and the study of various physical phenomena and forms of energy.
03212Scientific Research and Design In Scientific Research and Design courses, students conceive of, design, and complete a project using scientific inquiry and experimentation methodologies. Emphasis is typically placed on safety issues, research protocols, controlling or manipulating variables, data analysis, and a coherent display of the project and its outcome(s).
03213IB Sciences, Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Sciences, Middle Years Program courses provide to students a body of knowledge and an understanding of the scientific approach to problem solving. It may be organized as biology, chemistry, and physics, or as an integrated sciences course. The course requires students to formulate hypotheses, design and carry out experiments to test them, and evaluate results.
03228Science (early childhood education)Science (early childhood education) courses cover foundational skills and concepts related to science, such as investigation and observation. Content is age appropriate and conforms to any existing state standards for early childhood education.
03229Science (pre-kindergarten)Science (pre-kindergarten) courses cover foundational skills and concepts related to science, such as investigation and observation. Content is age-appropriate and conforms to any existing state standards for pre-kindergarten education.
03230Science (kindergarten)Science (kindergarten) courses encourage students to observe and describe properties of organisms, systems, and the environment. Students may raise questions, identify patterns, and record observations. Specific content depends upon state standards for kindergarten.
03231Science (grade 1)Science (grade 1) courses allow students to identify interactions and patterns in objects and events and to record observations in written or visual form. Typically, students investigate systems of living organisms and the environment. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 1.
03232Science (grade 2)Science (grade 2) courses continue to introduce students to basic scientific processes and principles. Course content may include identification of patterns, classification and sequencing, or manipulation of systems to observe interactions between parts and record the effects of change. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 2.
03233Science (grade 3)Science (grade 3) courses involve observation, measurement, and description of simple systems. Course content may include the scientific process; life and environmental science; and physical, earth, and space science. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 3.
03234Science (grade 4)Science (grade 4) courses typically explore complex systems, such as plant and animal adaptation, forces and motion, and physical and chemical changes in matter, or content consistent with state academic standards. Students may identify causes and effects of change, make predictions, and gather data from multiple sources. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 4.
03235Science (grade 5)Science (grade 5) courses build on the study of various systems. They may include identification and description of cycles, comparisons of forms of matter and energy, forces, or content consistent with state academic standards. Students may make comparisons and interpret and analyze information. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 5.
03236Science (grade 6)Science (grade 6) courses typically include subject matter from several strands of science, including earth/space sciences, physical sciences, and life or environmental sciences, and may organize material around thematic units. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 6.
03237Science (grade 7)Science (grade 7) courses build on previous years of scientific inquiry and typically include subject matter from several strands of science, including earth sciences, physical sciences, and life or environmental sciences, and may organize material around thematic units. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 7.
03238Science (grade 8)Science (grade 8) courses typically include subject matter from several strands of science, including earth sciences, physical sciences, and life or environmental sciences, and may organize material around thematic units. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 8.
03239Science—GeneralScience—General courses involve content that is not grade differentiated and may apply to a range of consecutive grades (e.g., “by third grade, students should know and be able to do…”). These courses include content that may be applicable to states or localities that do not employ grade-level content standards. [These courses provide broad content that is not organized as described elsewhere (i.e., Science, early childhood education through grade 8).]
03994Life and Physical Sciences—Proficiency Development Life and Physical Sciences—Proficiency Development courses are designed to assist students in acquiring the skills necessary to pass proficiency examinations related to the life sciences and physical sciences.
03995Life and Physical Sciences—Aide Life and Physical Sciences—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students and may serve as laboratory assistants.
03996Life and Physical Sciences—SupplementalLife and Physical Sciences—Supplemental courses, designed to be taken in addition or in coordination with other life and physical science courses, provide instruction to assist students in acquiring science skills so that students attain necessary grade-level skills or reach a desired competency level.
03997Life and Physical Sciences—Independent Study Life and Physical Sciences—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore scientific topics of interest, using advanced methods of scientific inquiry and experimentation. These courses may be offered in conjunction with other rigorous science courses or may serve as an opportunity to explore a topic of special interest.
03998Life and Physical Sciences—Workplace Experience Life and Physical Sciences—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to life and/or physical science. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
03999Life and Physical Sciences—Other Other Life and Physical Sciences courses.
04001World Geography World Geography courses provide students with an overview of world geography, but may vary widely in the topics they cover. Topics typically include the physical environment; the political landscape; the relationship between people and the land; economic production and development; and the movement of people, goods, and ideas.
04002Particular Topics in Geography Particular Topics in Geography courses examine a particular topic in geography, such as physical or cultural geography, or the geography of a particular area or region, rather than provide an overview of the field.
04003IB Geography IB Geography courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Geography exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses integrate both physical and human geography and explore scientific and socio-economic methodologies and fieldwork. In general, IB Geography courses aim to help students understand the relationships within society, the relationships between society and the natural environment, and how those relationships change over time.
04004AP Human Geography Following the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to parallel college-level Human Geography courses, AP Human Geography introduces students to the systematic study of patterns and processes that have shaped the ways in which humans understand, use, and alter the earth’s surface. Students use spatial concepts and landscape analysis to examine human social organization and its environmental consequences and also learn about the methods and tools geographers use in their science and practice.
04005U.S. GeographyU.S. Geography courses provide an overview of the geography of the United States. Topics typically include the physical environment, the political landscape, the relationship between people and the land, and economic production and development.
04047Geography—Independent Study Geography—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest within geography. Independent Study courses may provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic of special interest, or to develop more advanced skills.
04048Geography—Workplace Experience Geography—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to geography. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
04049Geography—Other Other Geography courses.
04051World History—Overview World History—Overview courses provide students with an overview of the history of human society from early civilization to the contemporary period, examining political, economic, social, religious, military, scientific, and cultural developments. World History—Overview courses may include geographical studies, but often these components are not as explicitly taught as geography.
04052World History and Geography In addition to covering the objectives of World History—Overview courses, World History and Geography courses provide an overview of world geography. These courses are often developed in response to increased national concern regarding the importance of geography, and they explore geographical concepts.
04053Modern World History Modern World History courses provide an overview of the history of human society in the past few centuries—from the Renaissance period, or later, to the contemporary period—exploring political, economic, social, religious, military, scientific, and cultural developments.
04054IB History IB History courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate History exams at either the standard or higher level. In these courses, students study historical developments at national, regional and international levels, critically reflect on their relationship to the present, and explore the nature of historical documentation and the methods used by historians. IB History courses may survey the history of Europe and the Islamic world or focus on 20th-century topics in an international context and may enable students to undertake individual study on a subject of interest in greater detail and depth.
04055Modern European History Modern European History courses examine the development of political, social, and economic movements in Europe over the past few centuries (from the Renaissance period, or later, to the contemporary period) and usually include such topics as the rise of the modern nation state, scientific and industrial revolutions, the age of exploration and nationalism, imperialism, and world war.
04056AP European History Following the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to parallel college-level European History courses, AP European History courses examine European civilization from the High Renaissance period to the recent past and also expose students to the factual narrative. In addition, these courses help students develop an understanding of some of the principal themes in modern European history and the abilities to analyze historical evidence and to express that understanding and analysis in writing.
04057AP World History Following the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to parallel college-level World History courses, AP World History courses examine world history from 8000 BCE to the present with the aim of helping students develop a greater understanding of the evolution of global processes and contracts and how different human societies have interacted. These courses highlight the nature of changes in an international context and explore their causes and continuity.
04058Ancient Civilizations Ancient Civilizations courses provide a survey of the evolution of society from the ancient Middle East through Greek and Roman civilizations. Typically, in these courses, students study the rise and fall of civilizations and empires, with an emphasis on the legacies they provide to successive societies.
04059Medieval European History Medieval European History courses provide a survey of European civilization from the fall of Rome through the late Middle Ages.
04060Ancient and Medieval History Ancient and Medieval History courses combine a study of ancient civilizations and Medieval Europe, beginning with the civilizations of the ancient Middle East and continuing through the late Middle Ages in Europe.
04061World Area Studies World Area Studies courses examine the history, politics, economics, society, and/or culture of one or more regions of the world, such as Africa, Latin America, the former Soviet Union, Far East Asia, and the Middle East. These courses may focus primarily on the history of a particular region or may take an interdisciplinary approach to the contemporary issues affecting the region. Furthermore, these courses may emphasize one particular country (other than the United States), rather than emphasizing a region or continent.
04062World People Studies World People Studies courses allow students to study various types of subgroups that have something in common such as religion, gender, or culture. Similar in style to World Area Studies, but focusing on a group of people rather than on a specific region, these courses examine a subgroup’s history, politics, economics, and/or culture.
04063Western Civilization Western Civilization courses apply an interdisciplinary approach to the study of western cultural traditions, frequently using a chronological framework. Course content typically includes a survey of the major developments in and contributors to art and architecture, literature, religion and philosophy, and culture. These courses may also cover intellectual and political movements.
04064Contemporary World Issues Contemporary World Issues courses enable students to study political, economic, and social issues facing the world. These courses may focus on current issues, examine selected issues throughout the 20th century, and look at historical causes or possible solutions.
04065Particular Topics in World History These courses examine particular topics in world history other than those already described.
04066IB Islamic History IB Islamic History courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate History exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses are designed to provide students with the means to acquire a deep and open understanding of Islamic history and to grasp its contribution to the history of the world. Possible topics covered include political, social, economic, and intellectual aspects of Islamic history.
04097World History—Independent Study World History—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest within world history. Independent Study courses may provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular period or area, to explore a topic of special interest, or to develop more advanced skills.
04098World History—Workplace Experience World History—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to world history. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
04099World History—Other Other World History courses.
04101U.S. History—Comprehensive U.S. History—Comprehensive courses provide students with an overview of the history of the United States, examining time periods from discovery or colonialism through World War II or after. These courses typically include a historical overview of political, military, scientific, and social developments. Course content may include a history of the North American peoples before European settlement.
04102Early U.S. History Early U.S. History courses examine the history of the United States from the colonial period to the Civil War or Reconstruction era (some courses end after this period). Some courses include American history before European settlement, while others may begin at the formation of the new nation. These courses typically include a historical overview of political, military, scientific, and social developments.
04103Modern U.S. History Modern U.S. History courses examine the history of the United States from the Civil War or Reconstruction era (some courses begin at a later period) through the present time. These courses typically include a historical review of political, military, scientific, and social developments.
04104AP U.S. History Following the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to parallel college-level U.S. History courses, AP U.S. History courses provide students with the analytical skills and factual knowledge necessary to address critically problems and materials in U.S. history. Students learn to assess historical materials and to weigh the evidence and interpretations presented in historical scholarship. The course examines the discovery and settlement of the New World through the recent past.
04105State-Specific Studies State-Specific Studies courses examine the history, politics, economics, society, and/or cultures of one state in the United States. This course may focus primarily on the history of that state or may take an interdisciplinary approach to the contemporary issues affecting it.
04106Contemporary U.S. Issues Contemporary U.S. Issues courses study the political, economic, and social issues facing the United States, with or without an emphasis on state and local issues. These courses may focus on current issues or may examine selected issues that span throughout the 20th century to the present.
04107U.S. Ethnic StudiesU.S. Ethnic Studies courses examine the history, politics, economics, society, and/or culture of one or more of the racial/ethnic groups in the United States. These courses may focus primarily on the history of an individual racial/ethnic group or may take a more comprehensive approach to studying the contemporary issues affecting racial/ethnic groups overall.
04108U.S. Gender Studies U.S. Gender Studies courses examine the history, politics, economics, and/or culture of gender in U.S. society. These courses may focus primarily on gender relations or may take a more comprehensive approach to studying the contemporary issues related to gender.
04109Particular Topics in U.S. History These courses examine a particular topic in U.S. History, such as particular time periods in the history of the United States, or they may focus on the history of particular U.S. regions rather than provide an overview of the subject.
04147U.S. History—Independent Study U.S. History—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest within U.S. History. Independent Study courses may provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular period or area, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
04148U.S. History—Workplace Experience U.S. History—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to U.S. history. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
04149U.S. History—Other Other U.S. History courses.
04151U.S. Government—Comprehensive U.S. Government—Comprehensive courses provide an overview of the structure and functions of the U.S. government and political institutions and examine constitutional principles, the concepts of rights and responsibilities, the role of political parties and interest groups, and the importance of civic participation in the democratic process. These courses may examine the structure and function of state and local governments and may cover certain economic and legal topics.
04152Particular Topics in U.S. Government These courses examine a particular topic pertaining to U.S. government and political institutions rather than provide a general overview of the subject. They may concentrate on one of many topics related to governmental structure, function, and purposes, such as the Constitution, the Supreme Court, Congress, or the Office of the President.
04153Political Science Political Science courses approach the study of politics from a theoretical perspective, including an examination of the role of government and the nature of political behavior, political power, and political action.
04154Comparative Government Comparative Government courses study the basic tenets of government, searching for the differences and similarities among several forms of government. These courses take a comparative approach to the study of government and politics, focusing on how the United States compares with other nations.
04155International Relations International Relations courses provide students with an introduction to the relationships that exist among nations, including an examination of the modern state; the foreign policies of nations; the dynamics of nationalism, ideology, and culture; and the role of international organizations. The courses may also emphasize contemporary events.
04156United States and World Affairs United States and World Affairs courses provide a study of global interrelationships. Topics covered may include geographic, political, economic, and social issues of a particular country or region, with an emphasis on how these issues influence (or are influenced by) the way in which the United States relates to other countries in an interdependent world context.
04157AP U.S. Government and Politics Following the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to parallel college-level U.S. Government and Politics courses, these courses provide students with an analytical perspective on government and politics in the United States, involving both the study of general concepts used to interpret U.S. politics and the analysis of specific case studies. The courses generally cover the constitutional underpinnings of the U.S. government, political beliefs and behaviors, political parties and interest groups, the institutions and policy process of national government, and civil rights and liberties.
04158AP Comparative Government and Politics Following the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to parallel college-level Comparative Government and Politics courses, these courses offer students an understanding of the world’s diverse political structures and practices. The courses encompass the study of both specific countries and general concepts used to interpret the key political relationships found in virtually all national policies. Course content generally includes sovereignty, authority, and power; political institutions; the relationships among citizens, society, and the state; political and economic change; and public policy.
04159AP Government AP Government courses prepare students for the AP exams in both U.S. Government and Politics and Comparative Government and Politics. Course content includes the topics covered in those two separate courses. See SCED Codes 04157 and 04158 for detailed content descriptions.
04160Principles of Democracy Principles of Democracy courses combine a study of the structure of national, state, and local U.S. government with an overview of the principles of market economics. Course content may include contemporary U.S. issues. The purpose of these courses is to prepare students to perform effectively as informed citizens.
04161Civics Civics courses examine the general structure and functions of American systems of government, the roles and responsibilities of citizens to participate in the political process, and the relationship of the individual to the law and legal system. These courses do not typically delve into the same degree of detail on constitutional principles or the role of political parties and interest groups as do comprehensive courses in U.S. Government.
04162Law Studies Law Studies courses examine the history and philosophy of law as part of U.S. society and include the study of the major substantive areas of both criminal and civil law, such as constitutional rights, torts, contracts, property, criminal law, family law, and equity. Although these courses emphasize the study of law, they may also cover the workings of the legal system.
04163Consumer Law Consumer Law courses present a history and philosophy of law and the legal system in the United States, with a particular emphasis on those topics affecting students as consumers and young adults (such as contractual laws, laws pertaining to housing and marriage, and constitutional rights).
04164Business Law Business Law courses present a history and philosophy of law and the legal system in the United States, with a particular emphasis on those topics affecting students as future business leaders and employees. Such topics may include contracts, commercial paper and debt instruments, property rights, employer/employee relationships, and constitutional rights and responsibilities.
04165Legal System Legal System courses examine the workings of the U.S. criminal and civil justice systems, including providing an understanding of civil and criminal law and the legal process, the structure and procedures of courts, and the role of various legal or judicial agencies. Although these courses emphasize the legal process, they may also cover the history and foundation of U.S. law (the Constitution, statutes, and precedents). Course content may also include contemporary problems in the criminal justice system.
04166Particular Topics in Law These courses examine a particular topic in law such as the Constitution, specific statutes, or the legal process rather than provide an overview.
04167Simulated Political ProcessSimulated Political Process courses provide students with the opportunity to confront and resolve national and international issues by mirroring local, national, or international governmental bodies. These courses focus on government and international relations, conflict resolution, and policies and procedures of government. Course topics may include simulations of jury trials and national or international governmental organizations.
04168IB Twentieth Century World HistoryIB Twentieth Century World History courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate History exams at the standard or higher level. In these courses, students study political, military, economic, social, and cultural trends and explore the nature of historical documentation in an international context. Topics may include, but are not limited to, the Arab-Israeli conflict, communism, the challenges and responses of democratic states, and the Cold War.
04171IB Humanities, Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Humanities, Middle Years Program courses aim to develop the understanding and application of concepts (time, place and space, change, systems and global awareness) and skills (technical, analytical, problem solving, and investigative). Content may include topics such as geography, history, economics, politics, civics, sociology, anthropology, and psychology.
04197Government, Politics and Law—Independent Study Government, Politics, and Law—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest within one of the fields of Government, Politics, and Law. These courses may provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic of special interest, or to develop more advanced skills.
04198Government, Politics and Law—Workplace Experience Government, Politics, and Law—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related government, politics, and/or law. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
04199Government, Politics and Law—Other Other Government, Politics and Law courses.
04201Economics Economics courses provide students with an overview of economics with primary emphasis on the principles of microeconomics and the U.S. economic system. These courses may also cover topics such as principles of macroeconomics, international economics, and comparative economics. Economic principles may be presented in formal theoretical contexts, applied contexts, or both.
04202Comparative Economics Comparative Economics courses offer students an opportunity to study different economies and economic systems, including an examination of various approaches to problems in micro- and macroeconomics.
04203AP Microeconomics Following the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to parallel college-level microeconomics, AP Microeconomics courses provide students with a thorough understanding of the principles of economics that apply to the functions of individual decisionmakers (both consumers and producers). They place primary emphasis on the nature and functions of product markets, while also including a study of factor markets and the role of government in the economy.
04204AP Macroeconomics Following the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to parallel college-level macroeconomics, AP Macroeconomics courses provide students with a thorough understanding of the principles of economics that apply to an economic system as a whole. They place particular emphasis on the study of national income and price determination and developing students’ familiarity with economic performance measures, economic growth, and international economics.
04205AP Economics AP Economics courses prepare students for the College Board’s examinations in both AP Microeconomics and AP Macroeconomics. See SCED codes 04203 and 04204 for detailed content descriptions.
04206IB Economics Economics courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Economics exams at either the standard or higher level. The courses provide students with the basic tools of economic reasoning and teach them to use those tools to explain or interpret economic problems. Course content includes international and development economics, microeconomics, and macroeconomics.
04207Particular Topics in Economics These courses examine a particular topic in Economics rather than provide a general overview of the field. Course topics may include international economics, economic development and growth of a particular country or region, or resource allocation.
04247Economics—Independent Study Economics—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest within the field of economics. Independent Study courses may provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic of special interest, or to develop more advanced skills.
04248Economics—Workplace Experience Economics—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to economics. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
04249Economics—Other Other Economics courses.
04251Anthropology Anthropology courses introduce students to the study of human evolution with regard to the origin, distribution, physical attributes, environment, and culture of human beings. These courses provide an overview of anthropology, including but not limited to both physical and cultural anthropology.
04252Particular Topics in Anthropology These courses examine a particular topic in anthropology, such as physical anthropology, cultural anthropology, or archeology, rather than provide a more comprehensive overview of the field.
04253IB Social and Cultural Anthropology IB Social and Cultural Anthropology courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Social and Cultural Anthropology exams at either the standard or higher level. The courses aim to promote students’ awareness of underlying patterns and causes of social relationships and systems, preconceptions and assumptions within the social environment, and the use of ethnographic data in creating models, drawing inferences, and making comparisons.
04254Psychology Psychology courses introduce students to the study of individual human behavior. Course content typically includes (but is not limited to) an overview of the field of psychology, topics in human growth and development, personality and behavior, and abnormal psychology.
04255Particular Topics in Psychology These courses examine a particular topic in psychology, such as human growth and development or personality, rather than provide a more comprehensive overview of the field.
04256AP Psychology Following the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to parallel a college-level psychology course, AP Psychology courses introduce students to the systematic and scientific study of the behavior and mental processes of human beings and other animals, expose students to each major subfield within psychology, and enable students to examine the methods that psychologists use in their science and practice.
04257IB Psychology IB Psychology courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Psychology exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes biological, cognitive, and socio-cultural influences on human behavior, as well as experimental research methodology. Course content may also include the study of abnormal, developmental, health or sport psychology, the psychology of human relationships, and qualitative research in psychology.
04258Sociology Sociology courses introduce students to the study of human behavior in society. These courses provide an overview of sociology, generally including (but not limited to) topics such as social institutions and norms, socialization and social change, and the relationships among individuals and groups in society.
04259Particular Topics in Sociology These courses examine a particular topic in sociology, such as culture and society or the individual in society, rather than provide an overview of the field of sociology.
04260Social Science Social Science courses provide students with an introduction to the various disciplines in the social sciences, including anthropology, economics, geography, history, political science, psychology, and sociology. Typically, these courses emphasize the methodologies of the social sciences and the differences among the various disciplines.
04261Social Science Research Social Science Research courses emphasize the methods of social science research, including statistics and experimental design.
04297Social Sciences—Independent Study Social Sciences—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest within one of the social science fields. Independent Study courses may provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic of special interest, or to develop more advanced skills.
04298Social Sciences—Workplace Experience Social Sciences—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to the social sciences. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
04299Social Sciences—Other Other Social Studies courses.
04301Humanities Survey Humanities Survey courses provide an overview of major expressions of the cultural heritage of selected western and eastern civilizations. Content typically includes (but is not limited to) the examination of selected examples of art, music, literature, architecture, technology, philosophy, and religion of the cultures studied. These courses may also cover the languages and political institutions of these cultures.
04302Humanities Humanities courses examine and evoke student responses to human creative efforts and the world in particular historical periods and in particular cultures. Course content includes exploration, analysis, synthesis, and various responses to cultural traditions, including viewing, listening, speaking, reading, writing, performing, and creating. The courses may also examine relationships among painting, sculpture, architecture, and music.
04303Issues of Western Humanities Issues of Western Humanities courses introduce students to the study of the cultural heritage of human beings and provide an opportunity to explore our fundamental humanity. The content typically includes definitions of the humanities in relation to history, literature, religion, philosophy, art, music, and architecture and study of the cultures of Greece, Rome, and one or more settings in contemporary periods. Students are asked to analyze and clarify their sense of themselves; examine and clarify their responsibilities in relation to those of others; examine philosophies concerning moral responsibility for the future; and examine philosophies about human mortality.
04304IB Theory of Knowledge Obligatory for every International Baccalaureate Diploma degree candidate, IB Theory of Knowledge courses aim to stimulate critical self-reflection of students’ knowledge and experiences. Course content generates questions regarding the bases of knowledge and their verification in the disciplines of mathematics, natural sciences, human sciences, the arts, history, ethics, religious knowledge systems, and indigenous knowledge systems, with an awareness of moral, political, and aesthetic judgments and biases. Students learn to appreciate the strengths and limitations of various kinds of knowledge; to relate studied subjects to one another, general knowledge, and living experiences; to formulate rational arguments; and to evaluate the role of language in knowledge and as a way to convey knowledge.
04305Social Studies Social Studies courses enable students to study a group of related subjects addressing the elements and structures of human society that may include economics, geography, history, citizenship, and other social studies-related disciplines.
04306Philosophy Philosophy courses introduce students to the discipline of philosophy as a way to analyze the principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge, and the nature of the universe. Course content typically includes examination of the major philosophers and their writings.
04307Particular Topics in Philosophy These courses examine a particular topic in philosophy, such as aesthetic judgment, ethics, cosmology, or the philosophy of knowledge, rather than providing a more general overview of the subject.
04308Modern Intellectual History Modern Intellectual History courses provide a historical overview of modern intellectual movements, generally drawing from different disciplines such as political science, economics, and philosophy.
04309IB Philosophy IB Philosophy courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Philosophy exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses challenge students to reflect upon and question the bases of knowledge and experience, to develop critical and systematic thinking, and to carefully analyze and formulate rational arguments. Students closely examine conceptual themes and philosophical texts, and also undertake philosophical analysis of a non-philosophical stimulus, such as a painting or poem.
04310Particular Topics in Humanities These courses cover particular topics in humanities such as the interrelationships among painting, sculpture, architecture, and music or the exploration of a particular time period rather than provide a general overview of the subject.
04347Humanities—Independent Study Humanities—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest within the field of humanities. Independent Study courses may provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic of special interest, or to develop more advanced skills.
04348Humanities—Workplace Experience Humanities—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to humanities. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
04349Humanities—Other Other Humanities courses.
04428Social Studies (early childhood education)Social Studies (early childhood education) courses provide a developmentally appropriate understanding of social studies concepts, helping students begin to develop an understanding of self and others; the concept of time (past and present events); and skills conducive to citizenship, such as group decisionmaking. Content is age appropriate and conforms to any existing state standards for early childhood education.
04429Social Studies (pre-kindergarten)Social Studies (pre-kindergarten) courses provide a developmentally appropriate understanding of social studies concepts, helping students begin to develop an understanding of self and others; the concept of time (past and present events); and skills conducive to citizenship, such as group decisionmaking. Content is age appropriate and conforms to any existing state standards for pre-kindergarten education.
04430Social Studies (kindergarten)Social Studies (kindergarten) courses generally provide initial foundations in the social studies disciplines: history, geography, civics and government, and economics. Specific content depends upon state standards for kindergarten.
04431Social Studies (grade 1)Social Studies (grade 1) courses develop foundational skills in the social studies disciplines: history, geography, civics and government, and economics. These disciplines are often taught together and organized around a theme. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 1.
04432Social Studies (grade 2)Social Studies (grade 2) courses help students reach greater understanding of the social studies disciplines: history, geography, civics and government, and economics. Courses often offer study of these disciplines in an integrated fashion, through the context of a specific theme or discipline, such as state-based social studies or the history of a people. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 2.
04433Social Studies (grade 3)Social Studies (grade 3) courses build on previous knowledge and introduce concepts in the social studies disciplines: history, geography, civics and government, and economics. Instruction of the disciplines is often integrated for instructional purposes. Students may study these disciplines through the context of a specific theme or discipline, such as state-based social studies or U.S. history. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 3.
04434Social Studies (grade 4)Social Studies (grade 4) courses continue to develop skills in history, geography, civics and government, and economics. Although the four disciplines are typically integrated, these courses may take a more discipline-specific approach, such as concentrating on U.S. history, state-specific history, or civic engagement for periods of time. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 4.
04435Social Studies (grade 5)Social Studies (grade 5) courses continue to develop skills in history, geography, civics and government, and economics. These courses may be more discipline-specific (dividing up state history, U.S. history, geography, government, and so on). Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 5.
04436Social Studies (grade 6)Social Studies (grade 6) courses provide a greater understanding of social studies disciplines, including history, geography, civics and government, and economics. These courses often focus on the history, culture, and government of various specific world societies. Typically, students develop skills used in the social studies disciplines. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 6.
04437Social Studies (grade 7)Social Studies (grade 7) courses provide continued development of understanding and skills in the social studies disciplines: history, geography, civics and government, and economics. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 7.
04438Social Studies (grade 8)Social Studies (grade 8) courses provide continued development of understanding and skills in the social studies disciplines: history, geography, civics and government, and economics. Typically, these courses focus on single disciplines at a time (e.g., state-specific history and government, U.S. history, world history, or civics) to develop discipline-related skills. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 8.
04439Social Studies—General Social Studies—General courses involve content that is not grade differentiated and may apply to a range of consecutive grades (e.g., "by third grade, students should know and be able to do…"). These courses include content that may be applicable to states or localities that do not employ grade-level content standards. [These courses provide broad content that is not organized as described elsewhere (i.e., Social Studies, early childhood education through grade 8.]
04994Social Sciences and History—Proficiency Development Social Sciences and History—Proficiency Development courses are designed to assist students in acquiring the skills necessary to pass proficiency examinations related to history and/or other social sciences.
04995Social Sciences and History—Aide Social Sciences and History—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
04996Social Sciences and History—SupplementalSocial Sciences and History—Supplemental courses, designed to be taken in addition to or in coordination with other social sciences and history courses, provide instruction to assist students in acquiring social studies/social science skills so that students attain necessary grade-level skills or reach a desired competency level.
04997Social Sciences and History—Independent Study Social Sciences and History—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest within one of the fields of social studies. These courses provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic of special interest, or to develop more advanced skills.
04998Social Sciences and History—Workplace Experience Social Sciences and History—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to social sciences and/or history. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
04999Social Sciences and History—Other Other Social Sciences and History courses.
05001Dance TechniqueDance Technique courses provide students with experience in one specific form of dance (e.g., modern, jazz, ballet, contemporary, tap). These classes concentrate on improving students’ technique and the style of a particular dance form.
05002Dance RepertoryDance Repertory courses provide an opportunity for students with prior dance experience to develop dance techniques in small groups. These courses emphasize performance and typically require auditions.
05003General DanceFormerly known as Expressive Movement, General Dance courses explore dance content through the artistic processes of creating, performing, responding, and connecting. These courses may introduce dance history, culture, and vocabulary in the context of these processes. General Dance courses may also develop students’ ability to move expressively, without an emphasis on particular dance forms or on developing specific dance techniques.
05004Dance History and AppreciationFormerly known as Dance Appreciation, Dance History and Appreciation courses help students develop an understanding of how dance serves different civilizations and expand their knowledge of and ability to critique dance as an art form. These courses provide the history of dance and help students develop a dance vocabulary.
05005Dance—ChoreographyDance—Choreography courses teach students how to apply choreographic principles and dance forms to create fully developed choreography for formal or informal presentations. These courses may also help students create dances with a beginning, middle, and conclusion.
05006Dance SurveyDance Survey courses provide students with experience in several dance forms (e.g., modern, jazz, ballet, contemporary, tap). Classes introduce students to the fundamental elements of each technique and the common and unique traits among them.
05007Dance ImprovisationDance Improvisation courses help students develop an ability to respond kinesthetically in the moment, understand the elements of dance, relate to each other through movement, experiment with choreographic principles, and expand the boundaries of the definition of dance. These courses may emphasize the process of exploration, individual investigation, and group work.
05008World/Cultural DanceWorld/Cultural Dance courses help students develop an understanding of authentic dances from other nations in the context of the people’s history, culture, and customs. These courses may involve creating, performing, and responding to dances of other cultures and/or time periods.
05009Technical Theater for DanceTechnical Theater for Dance courses teach students the basics of lighting, sound, makeup, costuming, stage management, and other aspects of dance concert production. These courses may also include the practical application of skills.
05010Social DanceSocial Dance courses teach students the steps, spatial formations and patterns, appropriate partner etiquette, and the relationship of the dance(s) to specific music or musical forms as well as historical or cultural contexts. These courses emphasize the distinct forms of partner or group dances and may include a variety of options (e.g., ballroom, folk, contra, and line dances).
05011Dance Composition/Composition SeminarDance Composition/Composition Seminar courses help students gain an understanding of specific choreographic principles and apply those principles to individual movement studies. These courses may emphasize the process of building dance compositions and discovering methods for connecting different dances.
05012IB DanceIB Dance courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate (IB) Dance assessment at either the standard or higher level. IB Dance courses help students develop skills in the composition, performance, and analysis of dance. These courses also help students form an historical and global awareness of dance forms and styles.
05028Dance (early childhood education)Dance (early childhood education) courses provide developmentally appropriate activities to create awareness of bodily movement and its potential for creativity, expression, and communication. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for early childhood education.
05029Dance (pre-kindergarten)Dance (pre-kindergarten) courses provide developmentally appropriate activities to create awareness of bodily movement and its potential for creativity, expression, and communication. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for pre-kindergarten.
05030Dance (kindergarten)Dance (kindergarten) courses provide developmentally appropriate activities to create awareness of bodily movement and its potential for creativity, expression, and communication. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for kindergarten.
05031Dance (grade 1)Dance (grade 1) courses typically provide activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, appreciation of culture and heritage, and evaluative and critical thinking using the art of dance. Activities may include those that enable students to develop their technique, learn different styles of dance, appreciate the culture and history of dance forms, and strengthen their critical abilities. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 1.
05032Dance (grade 2)Dance (grade 2) courses typically provide activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, appreciation of culture and heritage, and evaluative and critical thinking using the art of dance. Activities may include those that enable students to develop their technique, learn different styles of dance, appreciate the culture and history of dance forms, and strengthen their critical abilities. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 2.
05033Dance (grade 3)Dance (grade 3) courses typically provide activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, appreciation of culture and heritage, and evaluative and critical thinking using the art of dance. Activities may include those that enable students to develop their technique, learn different styles of dance, appreciate the culture and history of dance forms, and strengthen their critical abilities. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 3.
05034Dance (grade 4)Dance (grade 4) courses typically provide activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, appreciation of culture and heritage, and evaluative and critical thinking using the art of dance. Activities may include those that enable students to develop their technique, learn different styles of dance, appreciate the culture and history of dance forms, and strengthen their critical abilities. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 4.
05035Dance (grade 5)Dance (grade 5) courses typically provide activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, appreciation of culture and heritage, and evaluative and critical thinking using the art of dance. Activities may include those that enable students to develop their technique, learn different styles of dance, appreciate the culture and history of dance forms, and strengthen the ability to discern and critique. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 5.
05036Dance (grade 6)Dance (grade 6) courses typically provide activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, appreciation of culture and heritage, and evaluative and critical thinking using the art of dance. Activities may include those that enable students to develop their technique, learn different styles of dance, appreciate the culture and history of dance forms, and strengthen the ability to discern and critique. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 6.
05037Dance (grade 7)Dance (grade 7) courses typically provide activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, appreciation of culture and heritage, and evaluative and critical thinking using the art of dance. Activities may include those that enable students to develop their technique, learn different styles of dance, appreciate the culture and history of dance forms, and strengthen the ability to discern and critique. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 7.
05038Dance (grade 8)Dance (grade 8) courses typically provide activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, appreciation of culture and heritage, and evaluative and critical thinking using the art of dance. Activities may include those that enable students to develop their technique, learn different styles of dance, appreciate the culture and history of dance forms, and strengthen the ability to discern and critique. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 8.
05039Dance—GeneralDance—General courses involve content that is not grade differentiated and may apply to a range of consecutive grades (e.g., "by third grade, students should know and be able to do…"). These courses include content that may be applicable to states or localities that do not employ grade-level content standards. [These courses provide broad content that is not organized as described elsewhere (i.e., Dance, early childhood education through grade 8).]
05047Dance—Independent Study Dance—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors or professional dancers/choreographers as mentors, enable students to explore a particular dance form. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular form or style, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
05048Dance—Workplace Experience Dance—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to dance. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
05049Dance—Other Other Dance courses.
05051Introduction to TheaterIntroduction to Theater courses provide an overview of the art, conventions, and history of the theater. Although the courses sometimes include experiential exercises, they emphasize learning about theater rather than performance. Course topics include one or more of the following: basic techniques in acting, major developments in dramatic literature, major playwrights, the evolution of theater as a cultural tradition, and critical appreciation of the art.
05052Theater ArtsTheater Arts courses focus on the study and performance of drama in its many forms. These courses review a wide range of scripted materials (such as plays, screenplays, teleplays, readers’ theater scripts); dramatic criticism; techniques for creating original dramatic works; and the role of dramatic arts in society. Theater Arts courses typically require students to perform collaboratively and be involved in the critique of dramatic works.
05053Theater—ComprehensiveTheater—Comprehensive courses help students develop experience and skill in one or more aspects of theatrical production. Introductory courses provide an overview of theatrical elements including acting, set design, stage management, directing, playwriting, and production. Advanced courses concentrate on extending and refining dramatic technique, by expanding students’ exposure to different types of theatrical techniques and traditions and increasing their participation in public productions.
05055Theater—Acting/PerformanceTheater—Acting/Performance courses provide students with experience and skill development in one or more aspects of theatrical production, by allowing them to concentrate on acting and performance skills. Introductory courses explore fundamentals, while advanced courses extend and refine technique, expand students’ exposure to different types of theatrical craft and traditions, and increase their participation in public productions.
05056Theater—StagecraftTheater—Stagecraft courses provide students with experience and skill in one or more aspects of theatrical production, such as lighting, costuming, sound, set construction, makeup, stage management, and the use of computer applications to support these functions. Initial courses are usually introductory in nature, while more advanced courses emphasize improving technique, expanding students’ exposure to different types of techniques and traditions, and increasing their chances of helping to mount public productions.
05057Theater—DirectingTheater—Directing courses focus on developing students’ skills in translating a script into a final production and are usually taken after other drama courses. Directing courses enable each student to create an artistic vision and develop a personal aesthetic. These courses may expose students to different types of theatrical techniques and traditions. They also provide students with opportunities to direct the performances of others (in scenes or a full production).
05058Playwriting and ScreenwritingFormerly known as Playwriting, Playwriting and Screenwriting courses help students understand and employ writing principles and techniques to create original scripts suitable for theater, film, and/or television. These courses explore the appropriate techniques of each genre and may examine the creative writing craft, scene writing, and the creation of a production.
05059History and Literature of the Theater History and Literature of the Theater courses explore in depth the structure, elements, and style of dramatic compositions, and, as an extension, how the dramatic literature influenced theatrical production and acting styles throughout history. Some courses may focus more on the literature component than on the theater (with increased emphasis on critique and analysis), but most courses connect these subjects, exploring their interrelationships. Major contributors (playwrights, directors, and so on) and the architecture of the theater may also be included as topics of study.
05060Musical TheaterMusical Theater courses provide students with the opportunity to experience various aspects of musical theater, including auditioning, singing, acting, and dancing. These courses help students understand the underlying assumptions and values within musical theater and to examine its specific history and evolution, literature, and styles of composition and vocal presentation.
05061Theatrical Production and ManagementTheatrical Production and Management courses prepare individuals to control and direct the planning, design, preparation, and production of theatrical performances. Course content may include instruction in theatrical design, program management, dramatic production, rehearsal management, personnel management and casting, actor coaching, directing concepts and techniques, theater history, scene work, script interpretation, business management, marketing, public relations, and communications skills.
05062IB TheatreIB Theatre courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate (IB) Theatre exams at either the standard or higher level. IB Theatre courses encourage students to examine the theory, history, and culture of theatre. These courses also help students develop the organizational and technical skills to express themselves through scripted performance, workshops, and independent project(s).
05068Drama (early childhood education)Drama (early childhood education) courses provide developmentally appropriate activities to enable students to express themselves through dramatic play and storytelling. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for early childhood education.
05069Drama (pre-kindergarten)Drama (pre-kindergarten) courses provide developmentally appropriate activities to enable students to express themselves through dramatic play and storytelling. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for pre-kindergarten.
05070Drama (kindergarten)Drama (kindergarten) courses provide developmentally appropriate activities to enable students to express themselves through dramatic play and storytelling. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for kindergarten.
05071Drama (grade 1)Drama (grade 1) courses enable students to express themselves through dramatic play and storytelling. Course content typically includes the use of movement, language, character, plot, and spectacle to portray imaginary or real experiences. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 1.
05072Drama (grade 2)Drama (grade 2) courses enable students to express themselves through dramatic play and storytelling. Course content typically includes the use of movement, language, character, plot, and spectacle to portray imaginary or real experiences. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 2.
05073Drama (grade 3)Drama (grade 3) courses enable students to express themselves through dramatic play and storytelling. Course content typically includes the use of movement, language, character, plot, and spectacle to portray imaginary or real experiences. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 3.
05074Drama (grade 4)Drama (grade 4) courses enable students to express themselves through dramatic play and storytelling. Course content typically includes the use of movement, language, character, plot, and spectacle to portray imaginary or real experiences. Activities may include those that enable students to refine their technique, increase their artistic vocabulary, express themselves and their world view, and strengthen their critical abilities. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 4.
05075Drama (grade 5)Drama (grade 5) courses enable students to express themselves through dramatic play and storytelling. Course content typically includes the use of movement, language, character, plot, and spectacle to portray imaginary or real experiences. Activities may include those that enable students to refine their technique, increase their artistic vocabulary, express themselves and their world view, and strengthen their critical abilities. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 5.
05076Drama (grade 6)Drama (grade 6) courses enable students to express themselves through dramatic play and storytelling. Course content typically includes the use of movement, language, character, plot, and spectacle to portray imaginary or real experiences. Activities may include those that enable students to refine their technique, increase their artistic vocabulary, express themselves and their world view, and strengthen their critical abilities. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 6.
05077Drama (grade 7)Drama (grade 7) courses enable students to express themselves through dramatic play and storytelling. Course content typically includes the use of movement, language, character, plot, and spectacle to portray imaginary or real experiences. As appropriate, students may focus on acting techniques and traditions, other aspects of drama (staging, lighting, costuming), or both. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 7.
05078Drama (grade 8)Drama (grade 8) courses enable students to express themselves through dramatic play and storytelling. Course content typically includes the use of movement, language, character, plot, and spectacle to portray imaginary or real experiences. As appropriate, students may focus on acting techniques and traditions, other aspects of drama (staging, lighting, costuming), or both. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 8.
05079Drama—General Drama—General courses involve content that is not grade differentiated and may apply to a range of consecutive grades (e.g., "by third grade, students should know and be able to do…"). These courses include content that may be applicable to states or localities that do not employ grade-level content standards. [These courses provide broad content that is not organized as described elsewhere (i.e., Drama, early childhood education through grade 8).]
05097Theater—Independent Study Theater—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors or artists as mentors, enable students to explore a particular theatrical form. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular form or style, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
05098Theater—Workplace Experience Theater—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to drama and the theater. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
05099Theater—Other Other Theater courses.
05101General BandGeneral Band courses help students develop techniques for playing brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments and their ability to perform a variety of concert band literature styles. These courses may emphasize rehearsal and performance experiences in a range of styles (e.g., concert, marching, orchestral, and modern).
05102Concert Band Courses in Concert Band are designed to promote students’ technique for playing brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments and cover a variety of band literature styles, primarily for concert performances.
05103Marching Band Courses in Marching Band are intended to develop students’ technique for playing brass, woodwind, and percussion instruments and cover appropriate band literature styles, primarily for marching performances.
05104OrchestraOrchestra courses help develop students’ technique for playing strings along with woodwind, brass, and percussion instruments. These courses may emphasize collaboration through rehearsal and performance experiences.
05105Contemporary Instrumental EnsembleFormerly known as Contemporary Band, Contemporary Instrumental Ensemble courses help students perform a variety of contemporary styles, such as traditional jazz, jazz improvisation, and rock. At the same time, these courses cultivate students’ technique on instruments appropriate to the style(s) performed—brass, woodwind, string, percussion instruments, and/or electronic. These ensembles emphasize instrumental music but may also include vocal music. Advanced coursework provides students with opportunities for growth through rehearsal and performance, improvisation, or creating and performing their own compositions.
05106Small EnsembleFormerly known as Instrumental Ensemble, Small Ensemble courses help students perform a variety of musical styles (e.g., traditional chamber music, jazz, and rock). At the same time, these courses help cultivate students’ technique on instruments appropriate to the style(s) performed—brass, woodwind, string, percussion instruments, and/or electronic. Courses typically range in size from 2 to 20 performers.
05107PianoPiano courses provide students an introduction to and refine the fundamentals of music and keyboard techniques such as scales, chords, and melodic lines and then offer instruction in more advanced techniques. Formal and informal performances are typically included.
05108GuitarGuitar courses provide students an introduction to and refine the fundamentals of music and guitar-playing techniques, such as strumming and chords, and then offer instruction in more advanced techniques. Formal and informal performances are typically included.
05109Individual Technique—Instrumental MusicIndividual Technique—Instrumental Music courses provide individuals with instruction in instrumental techniques. These courses may be conducted either individually or in a small group; formal and informal performances are typically included.
05110ChorusChorus courses develop students’ vocal skills within the context of a large choral ensemble in which they can perform a variety of styles. These courses are designed to develop students’ vocal techniques and their ability to sing parts.
05111Vocal EnsembleVocal Ensemble courses help students develop vocal techniques and refine their ability to sing parts in small ensembles (e.g., madrigal, barber shop, gospel). Course goals may include helping students develop their solo singing ability and emphasize one or several ensemble literature styles. These ensembles may include both instrumental and vocal music.
05112Individual Technique—Vocal MusicIndividual Technique—Vocal Music courses provide instruction in and encourage the refinement of vocal techniques other than the ability to sing in groups. These courses may be conducted individually or in small groups. Formal and informal performances may be part of the instructional program.
05113Music Theory Music Theory courses provide students with an understanding of the fundamentals of music and include one or more of the following topics: composition, arrangement, analysis, aural development, and sight reading.
05114AP Music Theory AP Music Theory courses are designed to be the equivalent of a first-year music theory college course as specified by the College Board. AP Music Theory develops students’ understanding of musical structure and compositional procedures. Usually intended for students who already possess performance-level skills, AP Music Theory courses extend and build upon students’ knowledge of intervals, scales, chords, metric/rhythmic patterns, and the ways they interact in a composition. Musical notation, analysis, composition, and aural skills are important components of the course.
05115IB Music IB Music courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Music exam at either the standard or higher level. IB Music courses develop students’ knowledge and understanding of music through study of musical perception, including study of musical elements, form and structure, notations, musical terminology and context. These courses include exploration of music from different places, cultures, and time periods. They also involve training in at least one of the following: creating, solo performing, and group performing.
05116Music History/AppreciationMusic History/Appreciation courses survey different musical styles and periods with the intent of increasing students’ understanding of music and its importance in relation to the human experience. Music History/Appreciation courses may focus on how various styles of music apply musical elements to create an expressive or aesthetic impact.
05117Music HistoryMusic History courses provide students with an understanding of music, its importance, and context in a selected range of historical periods and/or cultural styles.
05118Music AppreciationMusic Appreciation courses provide students with an understanding of music and its importance in their lives. Course content focuses on how various styles of music apply musical elements to create an expressive or aesthetic impact.
05119Composition/SongwritingComposition/Songwriting courses prepare students to express themselves through creating music. These courses may use conventional or nonconventional notation and may include instrumental and vocal music. Along with musical instruments and vocals, technology may be used for creating, recording, and performing music.
05120StringsStrings courses provide students an introduction to and refine the fundamentals of music and string instrument techniques and may include more advanced techniques. These courses teach students the appropriate care, handling, and maintenance of musical instruments. Formal and informal performances are included as part of string instrument instructional programs.
05121Contemporary Vocal EnsembleContemporary Vocal Ensemble courses help students develop vocal techniques while focusing primarily on contemporary stage literature styles, such as traditional jazz, jazz improvisation, and rock. These courses may also focus on gospel, show choir, or barbershop choral group dynamics.
05122Culturally Influenced EnsembleCulturally Influenced Ensemble courses help students perform a variety of cultural music styles, such as Mariachi band, steel drum band, Indian gamelan, or African drumming ensembles. At the same time, these courses help students develop techniques on instruments appropriate to the style(s) performed—brass, woodwind, string, percussion instruments, and/or electronic. Courses emphasize instrumental music but may also include vocal music. Advanced coursework provides students with opportunities for growth through rehearsal and performance, improvisation, or creating and performing their own compositions.
05123Recording and Production Recording and Production courses provide students with an opportunity to learn and apply skills in music recording techniques, music editing, mixing, and creating finished musical recordings for distribution as sound files.
05124Technology/Electronic MusicTechnology/Electronic Music courses emphasize current technology as a means to create, record, mix, and otherwise interact with music and music media. These courses focus on experimenting with electronic music technology as part of the process for creating music.
05128Music (early childhood education)Music (early childhood education) courses provide developmentally appropriate activities to enable students to create and perform music, listen and respond to musical compositions, and incorporate their musical experiences with other activities and subjects. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for early childhood education.
05129Music (pre-kindergarten)Music (pre-kindergarten) courses provide developmentally appropriate activities to enable students to create and perform music, listen and respond to musical compositions, and incorporate their musical experiences with other activities and subjects. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for pre-kindergarten.
05130Music (kindergarten)Music (kindergarten) courses provide developmentally appropriate activities to enable students to create and perform music, listen and respond to musical compositions, and incorporate their musical experiences with other activities and subjects. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for kindergarten.
05131Music (grade 1)Music (grade 1) courses provide activities to enable students to create and perform music, listen and respond to musical compositions, and incorporate their musical experiences with other activities and subjects. Course content usually involves understanding music as creative expression and communication, developing skill with the voice and/or musical instruments, and establishing the ability to discern and critique. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 1.
05132Music (grade 2)Music (grade 2) courses provide activities to enable students to create and perform music, listen and respond to musical compositions, and to incorporate their musical experiences with other activities and subjects. Course content usually involves understanding music as creative expression and communication, developing skill with the voice and/or musical instruments, and establishing the ability to discern and critique. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 2.
05133Music (grade 3)Music (grade 3) courses provide activities to enable students to create and perform music, listen and respond to musical compositions, and incorporate their musical experiences with other activities and subjects. Course content usually involves understanding music as creative expression and communication, developing skill with the voice and/or musical instruments, and establishing the ability to discern and critique. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 3.
05134Music (grade 4)Music (grade 4) courses provide activities to enable students to create and perform music, listen and respond to musical compositions, and incorporate their musical experiences with other activities and subjects. Course content usually involves understanding music as creative expression and communication, developing skill with the voice and/or musical instruments, and establishing the ability to discern and critique. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 4.
05135Music (grade 5)Music (grade 5) courses provide activities to enable students to create and perform music, listen and respond to musical compositions, and incorporate their musical experiences with other activities and subjects. Course content usually involves understanding music as creative expression and communication, developing skill with the voice and/or musical instruments, and establishing the ability to discern and critique. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 5.
05136Music (grade 6)Music (grade 6) courses enable students to create and perform music, listen and respond to musical compositions, and incorporate their musical experiences with other activities and subjects. Course content usually involves understanding music as creative expression and communication, developing skill with the voice and/or musical instruments, and refining the ability to discern and critique. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 6.
05137Music (grade 7)Music (grade 7) courses enable students to create and perform music, listen and respond to musical compositions, and incorporate their musical experiences with other activities and subjects. Course content usually involves understanding music as creative expression and communication, developing skill with the voice and/or musical instruments, and refining the ability to discern and critique. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 7.
05138Music (grade 8)Music (grade 8) courses enable students to create and perform music, listen and respond to musical compositions, and incorporate their musical experiences with other activities and subjects. Course content usually involves understanding music as creative expression and communication, developing skill with the voice and/or musical instruments, and refining the ability to discern and critique. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 8.
05139Music—General Music—General courses involve content that is not grade differentiated and may apply to a range of consecutive grades (e.g., "by third grade, students should know and be able to do…"). These courses include content that may be applicable to states or localities that do not employ grade-level content standards. [These courses provide broad content that is not organized as described elsewhere (i.e., Music, early childhood education through grade 8).]
05147Music—Independent Study Music—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors, professional musicians, or voice coaches as mentors, enable students to explore music-related topics. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular form or style, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
05148Music—Workplace Experience Music—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to music. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
05149Music—Other Other Music courses.
05151Art AppreciationArt Appreciation courses introduce students to the historical study of and foundation for many forms of art. These courses help students form an aesthetic framework to examine social, political, and historical events in the world and how visual images express the ideas of individuals and society.
05152Art HistoryArt History courses introduce students to significant works of art, artists, and artistic movements that have shaped the art world and have influenced or reflected various periods of history. These courses may emphasize the sequential evolution of art forms, techniques, symbols, and themes. Art History courses also cover the relationship of art to social, political, and historical events throughout the world, while covering multiple artists, aesthetic issues, and the evolution of art.
05153AP Art HistoryDesigned to parallel college-level Art History courses, AP Art History courses provide the opportunity for students to critically examine architecture, sculpture, painting, and other art forms within their historical and cultural contexts. In covering the art of several centuries (not necessarily in chronological order), students learn to identify different styles, techniques, and influences and to formulate and articulate their reactions to various kinds of artwork.
05154Visual Art—ComprehensiveVisual Art—Comprehensive courses enable students to explore one or several art forms (e.g., drawing, painting, two- and three-dimensional design, and sculpture) and to create individual works of art. Initial courses emphasize observations, interpretation of the visual environment, visual communication, imagination, and symbolism. Courses cover the language, materials, media, and processes of a particular art form and the design elements used. Advanced courses encourage students to refine their skills while also developing their own artistic styles. Courses may also include the study of major artists, art movements, and styles.
05155Visual Arts—Drawing/PaintingVisual Arts—Drawing/Painting courses provide a foundation in drawing and painting using a variety of media and techniques, emphasizing observation and interpretation of the visual environment. These courses typically include applying the elements of art and principles of design, along with a study of art and artists from a worldwide perspective, and instruction in the critique process. Advanced courses may encourage students to refine their creative process and develop their own artistic styles.
05156Visual Arts—DrawingVisual Arts—Drawing courses provide a foundation in drawing using a variety of techniques and media (such as pen-and-ink, pencil, chalk, and so on), emphasizing observation and interpretation of the visual environment, life drawing, and imaginative drawing. These courses typically include applying the elements of art and principles of design, along with a study of art and artists from a worldwide perspective, and instruction in the critique process. Advanced courses may encourage students to refine their creative processes and develop their own artistic styles.
05157Visual Arts—PaintingVisual Arts—Painting courses provide a foundation in painting using a variety of techniques and media (such as watercolor, tempera, oils, acrylics, and so on), emphasizing observation and interpretation of the visual environment, life drawing, and imaginative painting. These courses typically include applying the elements of art and principles of design, along with a study of art and artists from a worldwide perspective, and instruction in the critique process. Advanced courses may encourage students to refine their creative processes and develop their own artistic styles.
05158Visual Arts—SculptureVisual Arts—Sculpture courses promote creative expression through three-dimensional works. These courses explore real and abstract sculpture through subtractive (carving), additive (modeling), and assemblage techniques in one or more media. Visual Arts—Sculpture courses typically include the production of real and abstract sculptures while incorporating elements of art and principles of design, along with a study of historical and contemporary sculpture and sculptors from a worldwide perspective. These courses also provide instruction in the critique process.
05159Ceramics/PotteryCeramics/Pottery courses provide students with a foundation in the history of ceramics, with an emphasis on critique, aesthetic inquiry, and creative production. These courses provide knowledge of ceramic techniques (e.g., kiln firing and glazing) and processes, with a focus on creative design and craftsmanship. Courses may include clay modeling, hand building, coil building, casting, and throwing on the potter’s wheel.
05160Printmaking/GraphicsPrintmaking/Graphics courses emphasize applying the elements of art and principles of design to both printmaking and visual communications design. These courses help students investigate printmaking media, techniques, and processes, in addition to providing instruction about the purposeful arrangement of images, symbols, and text to communicate a message. Printmaking/Graphics courses also include a study of historical and contemporary printmaking and visual communications design and provide instruction in the critique process.
05161PrintmakingPrintmaking courses provide students with experience in a variety of traditional and digital printmaking media, techniques, and processes. These courses emphasize elements of art and principles of design and introduce the critique process.
05162Visual Communications DesignFormerly known as Graphic Design. Visual Communications Design courses emphasize applying elements of art and principles of design through the exploration of the purposeful arrangement of images, symbols, and text to communicate a message. These courses may investigate the influence and role of computers in creating these messages. Visual Communications Design courses present a historical and contemporary view of visual communications design and provide instruction in the critique process.
05163Advertising DesignAdvertising Design courses emphasize applying the elements of art and principles of design used in the fields of advertising and commercial art. These courses offer experiences in promoting products or ideas through logos, layouts, illustrations, displays, and lettering and in using a variety of media, techniques, and processes. They also include preparing artwork for reproduction. Advertising Design courses present a historical and contemporary view of advertising art and commercial art and provide instruction in the critique process.
05164Fibers and Textile DesignFormerly known as Textiles, Fibers and Textile Design courses emphasize applying the elements of art and principles of design in creating textile and fiber works using fiber and fiber-related media, techniques, and processes. These courses may help students understand the suitability of design to materials and the artist’s intent in creating textile works of art. They may also include the study the history of fiber and textile art and provide instruction in the critique process.
05165CraftsCrafts courses help students apply elements of art and principles of design to the materials and accompanying aesthetics of crafts. These courses may survey a wide range of crafts or may focus on only one type of craft; some possibilities include calligraphy, quilting, silk-screening, cake-decorating, tole-painting, mask-making, knitting, crocheting, paper-making, and so on.
05166JewelryJewelry courses help students apply elements of art and principles of design to the fabrication of small-scale objects and pieces of jewelry. These courses typically help students develop expressive and technical skills in creating jewelry, using art metals, and exploring design concepts in form and surface decoration. Courses present a historical and contemporary view of using art metals and other elements in jewelry design and provide instruction in the critique process.
05167PhotographyPhotography courses provide students with an understanding of photographic media, techniques, and processes. These courses focus on development of photographic compositions through manipulation of the elements of art and principles of design. Photography courses may also include the history of photography, historic movements, image manipulation, critical analysis, and some creative special effects.
05168Cinematography/Video ProductionFormerly known as Film/Videotape, Cinematography/Video Production courses emphasize the application of the elements of art and principles of design relative to the history and development of cinema, television, and video production. Students experience a variety of media, techniques, and processes as they study production values and various styles of cinematography. Students engage in critiques of their cinematic or video productions, those of other students, and productions of professional cinematographers or video artists.
05169Multimedia ArtFormerly known as Computer-Assisted Art, Multimedia Art courses emphasize applying the elements of art and principles of design relative to the history and development of cinema, television, and video production. These courses provide students with the opportunity to develop foundational skills and knowledge while they also become more adept in cinema, video, digital live production, electronic, and time-based media.
05170Art PortfolioArt Portfolio courses offer students the opportunity to create a professional body of work that clearly demonstrates mastery of technical skills and increased conceptual thinking and reflects their personal interests. These courses may include individual critiques and planned group activities for students to display their work publicly.
05172AP Studio Art—DrawingDesigned for students with a serious interest in art, AP Studio Art—Drawing focuses on a variety of concepts and approaches in drawing, enabling students to demonstrate in-depth knowledge of the processes, range of abilities, and versatile uses of media, technique, problem solving, and scope. They can demonstrate such conceptual variety through the use of one or several media. These courses enable students to refine their skills and create artistic works to submit via portfolio to the College Board for evaluation.
05173IB Art/DesignIB Visual Arts courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate (IB) Visual Arts exams at either the standard or higher level. IB Visual Arts courses help students develop aesthetic and creative faculties and experiences in various visual art forms. They also offer students training in awareness and criticism of art and enable them to create their own quality works of art. Students perform both studio and research work; the research component is designed to investigate particular topics or concepts of interest in further detail.
05174AP Studio Art—Two-DimensionalAP Studio Art—Two-Dimensional courses focus on a variety of concepts and approaches in drawing and 2-D design, enabling students to demonstrate a range of abilities and versatility with media, technique, problem solving, and scope. Such conceptual variety can be demonstrated through the use of one or several media. These courses enable students to refine their skills and create artistic works to submit via a portfolio to the College Board for evaluation.
05175AP Studio Art—Three-DimensionalAP Studio Art—Three-Dimensional courses focus on a variety of concepts and approaches in 3-D design and creation, enabling students to demonstrate a range of abilities and versatility with media, technique, problem solving, and scope. They can demonstrate such conceptual variety through the use of one or several media. These courses enable students to refine their skills and create artistic works to submit via portfolio to the College Board for evaluation.
05176Calligraphy/LetteringCalligraphy/Lettering courses teach various styles of inscribing letters, developments in design and lettering, the romance of lettering through the ages, and the modern use of lettering in advertising and art. These courses present a historical and contemporary view of calligraphy, typography, and lettering and provide instruction in the critique process.
05177AnimationAnimation courses focus on the elements of art and principles of design as applied to two- or three-dimensional animation. These courses emphasize interactive use of drawing and design fundamentals, storyboarding, composition and imaging, shadows/shades, audio and sound creation, and editing. Courses may also include a study of the history of animation, aesthetic issues, roles and functions, and instruction in the critique process.
05178Art (early childhood education)Art (early childhood education) courses provide to students developmentally appropriate activities to foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, and appreciation of culture and heritage. Although the art form typically involves visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, crafts, and the like), students may also explore other forms of art such as dance, music, and theater. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for early childhood education.
05179Art (pre-kindergarten)Art (pre-kindergarten) courses provide to students developmentally appropriate activities to foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, and appreciation of culture and heritage. Although the art form typically involves visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, crafts, and the like), students may also explore other forms of art such as dance, music, and theater. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for pre-kindergarten.
05180Art (kindergarten)Art (kindergarten) courses provide to students developmentally appropriate activities to foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, and appreciation of culture and heritage. Although the art form typically involves visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, crafts, and the like), students may also explore other forms of art such as dance, music, and theater. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for kindergarten.
05181Art (grade 1)Art (grade 1) courses provide to students activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, and appreciation of culture and heritage. Activities may include those that enable students to refine their technique, increase their artistic vocabulary, and strengthen their critical abilities. Although the art form typically involves visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, crafts, and the like), students may also explore other forms of art such as dance, music, and theater. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 1.
05182Art (grade 2)Art (grade 2) courses provide to students activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, and appreciation of culture and heritage. Activities may include those that enable students to refine their technique, increase their artistic vocabulary, and strengthen their critical abilities. Although the art form typically involves visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, crafts, and the like), students may also explore other forms of art such as dance, music, and theater. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 2.
05183Art (grade 3)Art (grade 3) courses provide to students activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, and appreciation of culture and heritage. Activities may include those that enable students to refine their technique, increase their artistic vocabulary, and strengthen their critical abilities. Although the art form typically involves visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, crafts, and the like), students may also explore other forms of art such as dance, music, and theater. Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 3.
05184Art (grade 4)Art (grade 4) courses provide to students activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, and appreciation of culture and heritage. Activities may include those that enable students to refine their technique, increase their artistic vocabulary, express themselves and their world view, make connections to other content areas, develop their own aesthetic, and strengthen their critical abilities. Although typically involving the visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, crafts, and the like), these courses may also include other forms of art (for example, dance, music, and theater). Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 4.
05185Art (grade 5)Art (grade 5) courses provide to students activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, and appreciation of culture and heritage. Activities may include those that enable students to refine their technique, increase their artistic vocabulary, express themselves and their world view, make connections to other content areas, develop their own aesthetic, and strengthen their critical abilities. Although typically involving the visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, crafts, and the like), these courses may also include other forms of art (for example, dance, music, and theater). Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 5.
05186Art (grade 6)Art (grade 6) courses provide to students activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, and appreciation of culture and heritage. Activities may include those that enable students to refine their technique, increase their artistic vocabulary, express themselves and their world view, make connections to other content areas, develop their own aesthetic, and strengthen their critical abilities. Although typically involving the visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, crafts, and the like), these courses may also include other forms of art (for example, dance, music, and theater). Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 6.
05187Art (grade 7)Art (grade 7) courses provide to students activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, and appreciation of culture and heritage. Activities may include those that enable students to refine their technique, increase their artistic vocabulary, express themselves and their world view, make connections to other content areas, develop their own aesthetic, and strengthen their critical abilities. Although typically involving the visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, crafts, and the like), these courses may also include other forms of art (for example, dance, music, and theater). Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 7.
05188Art (grade 8)Art (grade 8) courses provide to students activities that foster creative expression, communication through artistic endeavor, and appreciation of culture and heritage. Activities may include those that enable students to refine their technique, increase their artistic vocabulary, express themselves and their world view, make connections to other content areas, develop their own aesthetic, and strengthen their critical abilities. Although typically involving the visual arts (drawing, painting, sculpture, crafts, and the like), these courses may also include other forms of art (for example, dance, music, and theater). Specific course content conforms to any existing state standards for grade 8.
05189Art—General Art—General courses involve content that is not grade differentiated and may apply to a range of consecutive grades (e.g., "by third grade, students should know and be able to do…"). These courses include content that may be applicable to states or localities that do not employ grade-level content standards. [These courses provide broad content that is not organized as described elsewhere (i.e., Art, early childhood education through grade 8).]
05190Fashion DesignFashion Design courses emphasize applying the elements of art and principles of design in creating clothing and accessories and help students identify the relationships between design and clothing. Courses may also include a study of the history of fashion design, aesthetic issues, roles and functions, and instruction in the critique process.
05191Industrial DesignIndustrial Design courses emphasize applying the elements of art and principles of design and provide study of their application in affecting the function, value, and aesthetic of products. These courses help students analyze and use design principles in their industrial design work and may also include a study of the history of industrial design, aesthetic issues, roles and functions, and instruction in the critique process.
05192Architectural DesignArchitectural Design courses emphasize applying the elements of art and principles of design and provide study of their application in architectural design problems. These courses help students analyze and use design principles in their architectural design work. Architectural Design courses may also include a study of the history of architectural design, aesthetic issues, roles and functions, and instruction in the critique process.
05193Interior DesignInterior Design courses emphasize applying the elements of art and principles of design and provide study of their application in interior design problems. Interior Design courses focus on technical aspects of the design process, including building codes, legal building restrictions, building lot requirements, sustainable materials and construction. These courses help students analyze and use a variety of materials, techniques, and processes in their interior design work. Courses may also include a study of the history of interior design, aesthetic issues, roles and functions, and instruction in the critique process.
05194IB FilmIB Film courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Film exam at either the standard or higher level. IB Film courses develop students’ understanding and appreciation of the craft of film through the construction and deconstruction of film text. Course content includes textual analysis of film sequences, film theory and history, and the creative process of producing films.
05197Visual Art—Independent StudyVisual Art—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors or professional artists as mentors, enable students to explore a particular art form or topic. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular form or style, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
05198Visual Arts—Workplace Experience Visual Arts—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to visual arts. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
05199Visual Arts—Other Other Visual Arts courses.
05201Interdisciplinary ArtsFormerly known as Integrated Fine Arts, Interdisciplinary Arts courses explore communication across the arts disciplines: any subset or all of the visual arts, music, drama, theater, dance, and literature may be addressed in the curriculum for these courses. Students study and critique the works of others and participate in or produce art themselves. These courses often include comparative study of various art forms over time (i.e., the interrelationship of theater and visual arts of a particular time period and culture).
05202IB Arts, Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Arts, Middle Years Program courses include visual and performing arts and organize learning around the creative cycle. These courses bring students into contact with art forms and aesthetic values of several cultures and help students master artistic techniques.
05203Film Appreciation and AnalysisFilm Appreciation and Analysis courses help students understand the critical historical and stylistic elements of cinema. These courses help students form an aesthetic framework to examine social, political, and historical events in the world and to understand how moving images express the ideas of individuals and society. Course content may include analysis, discussion, and evaluation of multiple film styles including, but not limited to, documentary, short film, drama, horror, and comedy.
05995Visual and Performing Art—Aide Formerly Fine and Performing Arts—Aide, Visual and Performing Arts—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
05997Visual and Performing Art—Independent Study Formerly Fine and Performing Art—Independent Study, Visual and Performing Art—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors or professional artists as mentors, enable students to explore a particular art form. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular form or style, to explore a topic of in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skill.
05998Visual and Performing Art—Workplace Experience Formerly Fine and Performing Art—Workplace Experience, Visual and Performing Art—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to the fine and performing arts. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
05999Visual and Performing Art—Other Other Visual and Performing Art courses.
06028Foreign Language (early childhood education)Foreign Language (early childhood education) courses engage students in developmentally appropriate activities to acquire the language arts skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) necessary to communicate in a foreign language. Course content typically includes some introduction to other cultures. Specific content depends upon state standards for early childhood education.
06029Foreign Language (pre-kindergarten)Foreign Language (pre-kindergarten) courses engage students in developmentally appropriate activities to acquire the language arts skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) necessary to communicate in a foreign language. Course content typically includes some introduction to other cultures. Specific content depends upon state standards for pre-kindergarten.
06030Foreign Language (kindergarten)Foreign Language (kindergarten) courses engage students in developmentally appropriate activities to acquire the language arts skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) necessary to communicate in a foreign language. Course content typically includes some introduction to other cultures. Specific content depends upon state standards for kindergarten.
06031Foreign Language (grade 1)Foreign Language (grade 1) courses engage students in language arts skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) necessary to communicate in a foreign language. These courses may emphasize recognition of written words, vocabulary, speech patterns, and grammar. Cultural aspects (major events, foods, art, and so on) of the people(s) speaking the language(s) being studied are typically included as topics of study. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 1.
06032Foreign Language (grade 2)Foreign Language (grade 2) courses engage students in language arts skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) necessary to communicate in a foreign language. These courses may emphasize recognition of written words, vocabulary, speech patterns, and grammar so that students become more independent communicators. Cultural aspects (major events, foods, art, and so on) of the people(s) speaking the language(s) being studied are typically included as topics of study. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 2.
06033Foreign Language (grade 3)Foreign Language (grade 3) courses engage students in language arts skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) necessary to communicate in a foreign language. These courses may emphasize recognition of written words, vocabulary, speech patterns, and grammar so that students become more independent communicators. Cultural aspects (major events, foods, art, and so on) of the people(s) speaking the language(s) being studied are typically included as topics of study. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 3.
06034Foreign Language (grade 4)Foreign Language (grade 4) courses engage students in language arts skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) necessary to communicate in a foreign language. Cultural and/or historical aspects of the people(s) speaking the language(s) being studied are typically included as topics of study. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 4.
06035Foreign Language (grade 5)Foreign Language (grade 5) courses engage students in language arts skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) necessary to communicate in a foreign language. Cultural and/or historical aspects of the people(s) speaking the language(s) being studied are typically included as topics of study. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 5.
06036Foreign Language (grade 6)Foreign Language (grade 6) courses engage students in language arts skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) necessary to communicate in a foreign language. Cultural and/or historical aspects of the people(s) speaking the language(s) being studied are typically included as topics of study. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 6.
06037Foreign Language (grade 7)Foreign Language (grade 7) courses emphasize the language arts skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) necessary to communicate in a foreign language. Grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and applicable accents typically are studied so that students have the knowledge and ability to express themselves and understand others. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of the people(s) whose language is being studied. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 7.
06038Foreign Language (grade 8)Foreign Language (grade 8) courses emphasize the language arts skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) necessary to communicate in a foreign language. Grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and applicable accents typically are studied so that students have the knowledge and ability to express themselves and understand others. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of the people(s) whose language is being studied. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 8.
06039Foreign Language—General Foreign Language—General courses involve content that is not grade differentiated and may apply to a range of consecutive grades (e.g., "by third grade, students should know and be able to do…"). These courses include content that may be applicable to states or localities that do not employ grade-level content standards. [These courses provide broad content that is not organized as described elsewhere (i.e., Foreign Language, early childhood education through grade 8).]
06100Spanish (prior-to-secondary)Spanish (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the Spanish language and students’ knowledge of Spanish-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Spanish-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06101Spanish I Designed to introduce students to Spanish language and culture, Spanish I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Spanish culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of Spanish-speaking people.
06102Spanish II Spanish II courses build upon skills developed in Spanish I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in Spanish and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Spanish-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06103Spanish III Spanish III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06104Spanish IV Spanish IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Spanish language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06105Spanish V Spanish V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06106Spanish for Native Speakers Spanish for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Spanish for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Spanish foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also include the culture or history of the people and introduce translation skills.
06107Spanish Field Experience Spanish Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where Spanish is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06108Spanish Conversation and Culture Spanish Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the Spanish language and the culture(s) of Spanish-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06109Spanish Literature Spanish Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in Spanish.
06110IB Language A: Literature—SpanishIB Language A: Literature—Spanish courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Spanish in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06111IB Language B—Spanish IB Language B—Spanish courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06112AP Spanish Language and Culture Designed by the College Board to parallel third-year college-level courses in Spanish language, AP Spanish Language and Culture courses build upon prior knowledge and develop students’ ability to express ideas, exchange opinions, and present information in Spanish, both orally and in writing. These courses also help students in understanding and interpreting written and spoken Spanish. In addition, students explore the culture of Spanish-speaking people in historical and contemporary contexts.
06113AP Spanish Literature and CultureDesigned by the College Board to parallel college-level Introduction to Hispanic Literature courses, AP Spanish Literature and Culture courses cover representative works from the literatures of Spain and Spanish America, encompassing all genres. The courses build students’ Spanish language proficiency, with special attention given to critical opinions and literary analyses in oral and written Spanish. Students are encouraged to relate the texts to their cultural contexts.
06114IB Language B (Spanish), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (Spanish), Middle Years Program courses enable students to gain competence in modern Spanish; these courses also encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06115IB Language A: Language and Literature—SpanishIB Language A: Language and Literature—Spanish courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Spanish in an academic context.
06116IB Language Ab Initio—SpanishIB Language Ab Initio—Spanish courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06120French (prior-to-secondary)French (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the French language and students’ knowledge of French-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of French-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06121French I Designed to introduce students to French language and culture, French I emphasizes basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. French culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of the French-speaking people.
06122French II French II courses build upon skills developed in French I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in French and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of French-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06123French III French III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06124French IV French IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the French language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06125French V French V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06126French for Native Speakers French for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), French for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular French foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06127French Field Experience French Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where French is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06128French Conversation and Culture French Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the French language and the culture(s) of French-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06129French Literature French Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in French.
06130IB Language A: Literature—FrenchIB Language A: Literature—French courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using French in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06131IB Language B—French IB Language B—French courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06132AP French Language and CultureDesigned by the College Board to parallel third-year college-level courses in French language, AP French Language and Culture courses build upon prior knowledge and develop students’ ability to express ideas, exchange opinions, and present information in French, both orally and in writing. These courses also help students in understanding and interpreting written and spoken French. In addition, students explore the culture of French-speaking people in historical and contemporary contexts.
06134IB Language B (French), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (French), Middle Years Program courses enable students to gain competence in modern French and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06135IB Language A: Language and Literature—FrenchIB Language A: Language and Literature—French courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using French in an academic context.
06136IB Language Ab Initio—FrenchIB Language Ab Initio-French courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06140Italian (prior-to-secondary)Italian (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the Italian language and students’ knowledge of Italian-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Italian-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06141Italian I Designed to introduce students to Italian language and culture, Italian I emphasizes basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Italian culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of the Italian-speaking people.
06142Italian II Italian II courses build upon skills developed in Italian I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in Italian and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Italian-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06143Italian III Italian III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06144Italian IV Italian IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Italian language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06145Italian V Italian V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06146Italian for Native Speakers Italian for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Italian for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Italian foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06147Italian Field Experience Italian Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where Italian is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06148Italian Conversation and Culture Italian Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the Italian language and the culture(s) of Italian-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06149Italian Literature Italian Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in Italian.
06150IB Language A: Literature—ItalianIB Language A: Literature—Italian courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Italian in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06151IB Language B—Italian IB Language B—Italian courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06152AP Italian Language and CultureDesigned by the College Board to parallel third-year college-level courses in Italian language, AP Italian Language and Culture courses build upon prior knowledge and develop students’ ability to express ideas, exchange opinions, and present information in Italian, both orally and in writing. These courses also help students in understanding and interpreting written and spoken Italian. In addition, students explore the culture of Italian-speaking people in historical and contemporary contexts.
06153IB Language B (Italian), Middle Years ProgramLanguage B (Italian), Middle Years Program courses enable students to gain competence in modern Italian and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06154IB Language A: Language and Literature—ItalianIB Language A: Language and Literature—Italian courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Italian in an academic context.
06155IB Language Ab Initio—ItalianIB Language Ab Initio—Italian courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06160Portuguese (prior-to-secondary)Portuguese (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the Portuguese language and students’ knowledge of Portuguese-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Portuguese-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06161Portuguese I Designed to introduce students to Portuguese language and culture, Portuguese I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Portuguese culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of the Portuguese-speaking people.
06162Portuguese II Portuguese II courses build upon skills developed in Portuguese I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in Portuguese and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Portuguese-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06163Portuguese III Portuguese III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06164Portuguese IV Portuguese IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Portuguese language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06165Portuguese V Portuguese V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06166Portuguese for Native Speakers Portuguese for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Portuguese for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Portuguese foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06167Portuguese Field Experience Portuguese Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where Portuguese is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06168Portuguese Conversation and Culture Portuguese Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the Portuguese language and the culture(s) of Portuguese-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06169Portuguese Literature Portuguese Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in Portuguese.
06170IB Language A: Literature—PortugeseIB Language A: Literature—Portugese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Portugese in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06171IB Language B—Portuguese IB Language B—Portuguese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06172IB Language B (Portuguese), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (Portuguese), Middle Years Program courses enable students to gain competence in modern Portuguese and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06173IB Language A: Language and Literature—PortugeseIB Language A: Language and Literature—Portugese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Portugese in an academic context.
06174IB Language Ab Initio—PortugueseIB Language Ab Initio—Portuguese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06181Romance/Italic Language I Designed to introduce students to a Romance/Italic language not otherwise described (e.g., Catalan, Sardinian, or Haitian Creole) and culture, Romance/Italic Language I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions.
06182Romance/Italic Language II Romance/Italic Language II courses build upon skills developed in Romance/Italic Language I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in a Romance/Italic language not otherwise described (e.g., Catalan, Sardinian, or Haitian Creole) and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of appropriate people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06183Romance/Italic Language IIIRomance/Italic Language III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06184Romance/Italic Language IV Romance/Italic Language IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Romance/Italic Language being studied so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06185Romance/Italic Language V Romance/Italic Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06186Romance/Italic Language for Native Speakers Romance/Italic Language for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue not otherwise described (e.g., Catalan, Sardinian, or Haitian Creole). Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Romance/Italic Language for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Romance/Italic Language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also include the culture or history of the people and introduce translation skills.
06187Romance/Italic Language Field Experience Romance/Italic Language Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where a Romance/Italic language (e.g., Catalan, Sardinian, or Haitian Creole) is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06188Romance/Italic Language Conversation and Culture Romance/Italic Language Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to a Romance/Italic language not otherwise described (e.g., Catalan, Sardinian, or Haitian Creole) and the culture(s) of the people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06189Romance/Italic Literature Romance/Italic Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in a Romance/Italic language not otherwise described (e.g., Catalan, Sardinian, or Haitian Creole).
06190IB Language A: Literature—Romance/Italic LanguageIB Language A: Literature—Romance/Italic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using the Romance/Italic Language in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06191IB Language B—Romance/Italic Language IB Language B—Romance/Italic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06192IB Language A: Language and Literature—Romance/Italic LanguageIB Language A: Language and Literature—Romance/Italic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using the Romance/Italic Language in an academic context.
06193IB Language Ab Initio—Romance/Italic LanguageIB Language Ab Initio—Romance/Italic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06199Romance/Italic Language—Other Other Romance/Italic Language courses.
06200German (prior-to-secondary)German (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the German language and students’ knowledge of German-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of German-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06201German I Designed to introduce students to German language and culture, German I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. German culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of the German-speaking people.
06202German II German II courses build upon skills developed in German I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in German and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of German-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06203German III German III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06204German IV German IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the German language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06205German V German V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06206German for Native Speakers German for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), German for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular German foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06207German Field Experience German Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where German is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06208German Conversation and Culture German Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the German language and the culture(s) of German-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06209German Literature German Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in German.
06210IB Language A: Literature—GermanIB Language A: Literature—German courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using German in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06211IB Language B—German IB Language B—German courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06212AP German Language and Culture Designed by the College Board to parallel third-year college-level courses in German language, AP German Language and Culture courses build upon prior knowledge and develop students’ ability to express ideas, exchange opinions, and present information in German, both orally and in writing. These courses also help students in understanding and interpreting written and spoken German. In addition, students explore the culture of German-speaking people in historical and contemporary contexts.
06213IB Language B (German), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (German), Middle Years Program courses enable students to gain competence in modern German and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06214IB Language A: Language and Literature—GermanIB Language A: Language and Literature—German courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using German in an academic context.
06215IB Language Ab Initio—GermanIB Language Ab Initio—German courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06241Germanic Language I Designed to introduce students to a Germanic language not otherwise described (e.g., Dutch or Flemish) and culture, Germanic Language I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions.
06242Germanic Language II Germanic Language II courses build upon skills developed in Germanic Language I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in a Germanic language not otherwise described (e.g., Dutch or Flemish) and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of appropriate people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06243Germanic Language III Germanic Language III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06244Germanic Language IV Germanic Language IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Germanic Language being studied so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06245Germanic Language V Germanic Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06246Germanic Language for Native Speakers Germanic Language for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue not otherwise described (e.g., Dutch or Flemish). Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Germanic Language for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Germanic Language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also include the culture or history of the people and introduce translation skills.
06247Germanic Language Field Experience Germanic Language Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where a Germanic language (e.g., Dutch or Flemish) is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06248Germanic Language Conversation and Culture Germanic Language Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to a Germanic language not otherwise described (e.g., Dutch or Flemish) and the culture(s) of the people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06249Germanic Literature Germanic Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in a Germanic language not otherwise described (e.g., Dutch or Flemish).
06250IB Language A: Literature—Germanic LanguageIB Language A: Literature—Germanic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using the Germanic language in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06251IB Language B—Germanic Language IB Language B—Germanic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06252IB Language A: Language and Literature—Germanic LanguageIB Language A: Language and Literature—Germanic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using the Germanic language in an academic context.
06253IB Language Ab Initio—Germanic LanguageIB Language Ab Initio—Germanic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06259Germanic Language—Other Other Germanic Language courses.
06261Celtic Language I Designed to introduce students to a Celtic language (e.g., Gaelic or Welsh) and culture, Celtic Language I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Celtic culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of Celtic people.
06262Celtic Language II Celtic Language II courses build upon skills developed in Celtic Language I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in a Celtic language (e.g., Gaelic or Welsh) and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Celtic people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06263Celtic Language III Celtic Language III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06264Celtic Language IV Celtic Language IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Celtic Language being studied so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06265Celtic Language V Celtic Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06266Celtic Language for Native Speakers Celtic Language for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Celtic Language for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Celtic Language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also include the culture or history of the people and introduce translation skills.
06267Celtic Language Field Experience Celtic Language Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where a Celtic language (e.g., Gaelic or Welsh) is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06268Celtic Language Conversation and Culture Celtic Language Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to a Celtic language (e.g., Gaelic or Welsh) and the culture(s) of Celtic people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06269Celtic Literature Celtic Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in a Celtic language (e.g., Gaelic or Welsh).
06270IB Language A: Literature—Celtic LanguageIB Language A: Literature—Celtic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using the Celtic language in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06271IB Language B—Celtic Language IB Language B—Celtic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06272IB Language A: Language and Literature—Celtic LanguageIB Language A: Language and Literature—Celtic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using the Celtic language in an academic context.
06273IB Language Ab Initio—Celtic LanguageIB Language Ab Initio—Celtic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06279Celtic Language—Other Other Celtic Language courses.
06280Greek (prior-to-secondary)Greek (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the Greek language and students’ knowledge of Greek-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and vocal tones so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Greek-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06281Greek I Designed to introduce students to Greek language and culture, Greek I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Greek culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of the Greek-speaking people.
06282Greek II Greek II courses build upon skills developed in Greek I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in Greek and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Greek-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06283Greek III Greek III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06284Greek IV Greek IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Greek language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06285Greek V Greek V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06286Greek for Native Speakers Greek for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Greek for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Greek foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06287Greek Field Experience Greek Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where Greek is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06288Greek Conversation and Culture Greek Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the Greek language and the culture(s) of Greek-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06289Greek Literature Greek Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in Greek.
06290IB Language A: Literature—GreekIB Language A: Literature—Greek courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Greek in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06291IB Language B: Literature—GreekIB Language B—Greek courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06292IB Language A: Language and Literature—GreekIB Language A: Language and Literature—Greek courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Greek in an academic context.
06293IB Language Ab Initio—GreekIB Language Ab Initio—Greek courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06299Greek—Other Other Greek courses.
06300Latin (prior-to-secondary)Latin (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in reading and writing Latin language and students’ knowledge of Roman life and culture. Initial courses emphasize structures, forms, grammar and syntax, and vocabulary, so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand original Latin texts), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Rome to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06301Latin I Latin I courses expose students to the Latin language and culture, emphasizing basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the influence of Latin on current English words. Students will be able to read and write in Latin on a basic level.
06302Latin II Latin II courses enable students to expand upon what they have learned in Latin I, increasing their skills and depth of knowledge through the practice of structures, forms, and vocabulary. Reading materials reflect Roman life and culture.
06303Latin III Latin III courses build students’ knowledge of the Latin language and culture, typically focusing on having students express increasingly complex concepts in writing and comprehend and react to original Latin texts.
06304Latin IV Latin IV courses build students’ knowledge of the Latin language and culture, typically focusing on having students express increasingly complex concepts in writing and comprehend and react to original Latin texts.
06305Latin V Latin V courses build students’ knowledge of the Latin language and culture, typically focusing on having students express increasingly complex concepts in writing and comprehend and react to original Latin texts.
06311IB Classical Languages—Latin IB Classical Languages—Latin courses seek to strike a balance between the study of the classic Latin language itself (structure, meaning, and formulation) and the civilization it reflects (particularly its culture, philosophies, and institutions). Course content enables students to understand, translate, and appreciate a classical Latin text; relate literature to its historical or social background; recognize current relevance of ancient literature; and apply acquired knowledge to other subjects.
06313AP Latin (Virgil, Catullus and Horace) Designed to parallel advanced college-level courses in Latin studies, AP Latin courses build upon and increase knowledge of Latin, enabling students to read the language with comprehension, to accurately translate Latin into English, and to appreciate the stylistic literary techniques used by the authors. AP Latin courses also include study of the political, social, and cultural background of the literary works and their authors, as well as their influence on later literature.
06320Classical Greek (prior-to-secondary)Classical Greek (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in reading and writing classical Greek language and students’ knowledge of Grecian life and culture. Initial courses emphasize structures, forms, grammar and syntax, and vocabulary, so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand original Greek texts), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of ancient Greece to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06321Classical Greek I Classical Greek I courses expose students to classic Greek language and culture, emphasizing basic grammar, syntax, and simple vocabulary. Students will be able to read and write in Latin on a basic level.
06322Classical Greek II Classical Greek II courses enable students to expand upon what they have learned in Classical Greek I, increasing their skills and depth of knowledge through the practice of structures, forms, and vocabulary. Reading materials reflect Greek life and culture.
06323Classical Greek III Classical Greek III courses build students’ knowledge of the classic Greek language and culture, typically focusing on having students express increasingly complex concepts in writing and comprehend and react to original Greek texts.
06324Classical Greek IV Classical Greek IV courses build students’ knowledge of the classic Greek language and culture, typically focusing on having students express increasingly complex concepts in writing and comprehend and react to original Greek texts.
06325Classical Greek V Classical Greek V courses build students’ knowledge of the classic Greek language and culture, typically focusing on having students express increasingly complex concepts in writing and comprehend and react to original Greek texts.
06331IB Classical Languages—Greek IB Classical Languages—Greek courses seek to strike a balance between the study of the classic Greek language itself (structure, meaning, and formulation) and the civilization it reflects (particularly its culture, philosophies, and institutions). Course content enables students to understand, translate, and appreciate a classical Greek text; relate literature to its historical or social background; recognize current relevance of ancient literature; and apply acquired knowledge to other subjects.
06332IB Language B (Greek), Middle Years ProgramThis course allows students to gain competence in modern Greek and encourages respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06359Classical Languages—Other Other Classical Language courses.
06400Chinese (prior-to-secondary)Chinese (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the Chinese language and students’ knowledge of Chinese-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and vocal tones so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Chinese-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06401Chinese I Designed to introduce students to Chinese language and culture, Chinese I courses emphasize basic syntax, simple vocabulary, written characters, and spoken tones so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Chinese culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of Chinese-speaking people.
06402Chinese II Chinese II courses build upon skills developed in Chinese I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in Chinese and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and phrasing, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Chinese-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06403Chinese III Chinese III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06404Chinese IV Chinese IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Chinese language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of language rules and a strong vocabulary.
06405Chinese V Chinese V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06406Chinese for Native Speakers Chinese for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Chinese for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Chinese foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06407Chinese Field Experience Chinese Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where Chinese is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06408Chinese Conversation and Culture Chinese Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the Chinese language and the culture(s) of Chinese-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06409Chinese Literature Chinese Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in Chinese.
06410IB Language A: Literature—Chinese IB Language A: Literature—Chinese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Chinese in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06411IB Language B—Chinese IB Language B—Chinese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06412AP Chinese Language and CultureDesigned by the College Board to parallel fourth semester college-level courses in Mandarin Chinese language, AP Chinese Language and Culture courses build upon prior knowledge and develop students’ ability to express ideas, exchange opinions, and present information in Chinese, both orally and in writing. These courses also help students in understanding and interpreting written and spoken Chinese. In addition, students explore the culture of Chinese-speaking people in historical and contemporary contexts.
06413IB Language B (Chinese), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (Chinese), Middle Years Program courses enable students to gain competence in modern Chinese and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06414IB Language A: Language and Literature—Chinese IB Language A: Language and Literature—Chinese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Chinese in an academic context.
06415IB Language Ab Initio—ChineseIB Language Ab Initio—Chinese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06420Japanese (prior-to-secondary)Japanese (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the Japanese language and students’ knowledge of Japanese-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Japanese-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06421Japanese I Designed to introduce students to Japanese language and culture, Japanese I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Japanese culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of the Japanese-speaking people.
06422Japanese II Japanese II courses build upon skills developed in Japanese I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in Japanese and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Japanese-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06423Japanese III Japanese III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06424Japanese IV Japanese IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Japanese language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06425Japanese V Japanese V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06426Japanese for Native Speakers Japanese for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Japanese for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Japanese foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06427Japanese Field Experience Japanese Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where Japanese is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06428Japanese Conversation and Culture Japanese Conversation and Culture courses provide an introduction to the Japanese language and the culture(s) of Japanese-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06429Japanese Literature Japanese Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in Japanese.
06430IB Language A: Literature—JapaneseIB Language A: Literature—Japanese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Japanese in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06431IB Language B—Japanese IB Language B—Japanese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06432AP Japanese Language and CultureDesigned by the College Board to parallel third-year college-level courses in Japanese language, AP Japanese Language and Culture courses build upon prior knowledge and develop students’ ability to express ideas, exchange opinions, and present information in Japanese, both orally and in writing. These courses also help students in understanding and interpreting written and spoken Japanese. In addition, students explore the culture of Japanese-speaking people in historical and contemporary contexts.
06433IB Language B (Japanese), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (Japanese), Middle Years Program courses enable students to gain competence in modern Japanese and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06434IB Language A: Language and Literature—JapaneseIB Language A: Language and Literature—Japanese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Japanese in an academic context.
06435IB Language Ab Initio—JapaneseIB Language Ab Initio—Japanese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06440Korean (prior-to-secondary)Korean (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the Korean language and students’ knowledge of Korean-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and vocal tones so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Korean-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06441Korean I Designed to introduce students to Korean language and culture, Korean I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Korean culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of the Korean-speaking people.
06442Korean II Korean II courses build upon skills developed in Korean I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in Korean and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Korean-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06443Korean III Korean III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06444Korean IV Korean IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Korean language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06445Korean V Korean V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06446Korean for Native Speakers Korean for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Korean for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Korean foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06447Korean Field Experience Korean Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where Korean is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06448Korean Conversation and Culture Korean Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the Korean language and the culture(s) of Korean-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06449Korean Literature Korean Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in Korean.
06450IB Language A: Literature—KoreanIB Language A: Literature—Korean courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Korean in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06451IB Language B—Korean IB Language B—Korean courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06452IB Language B (Korean), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (Korean), Middle Years Program courses enable students to gain competence in modern Korean and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06453IB Language A: Language and Literature—KoreanIB Language A: Language and Literature—Korean courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Korean in an academic context.
06454IB Language Ab Initio—KoreanIB Language Ab Initio—Korean courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06481East Asian Language I Designed to introduce students to an East Asian language not otherwise described (e.g., Tibetan and Mongolian) and culture, East Asian Language I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions.
06482East Asian Language II East Asian Language II courses build upon skills developed in East Asian Language I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in an East Asian language not otherwise described (e.g., Tibetan and Mongolian) and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of appropriate people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06483East Asian Language III East Asian Language III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06484East Asian Language IV East Asian Language IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the East Asian Language being studied so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06485East Asian Language V East Asian Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06486East Asian Language for Native Speakers East Asian Language for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue not otherwise described (e.g., Tibetan and Mongolian). Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), East Asian Language for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular East Asian Language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also include the culture or history of the people and introduce translation skills.
06487East Asian Language Field Experience East Asian Language Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where an East Asian language (e.g., Tibetan and Mongolian) is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06488East Asian Language Conversation and Culture East Asian Language Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to an East Asian language not otherwise described (e.g., Tibetan and Mongolian) and the culture(s) of the people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06489East Asian Literature East Asian Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in an East Asian language not otherwise described (e.g., Tibetan and Mongolian).
06490IB Language A: Literature—East Asian LanguageIB Language A: Literature—East Asian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using the East Asian language in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06491IB Language B—East Asian Language IB Language B—East Asian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06492IB Language A: Language and Literature—East Asian LanguageIB Language A: Language and Literature—East Asian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using East Asian language in an academic context.
06493IB Language Ab Initio—East Asian LanguageIB Language Ab Initio—East Asian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06499East Asian Language—Other Other East Asian Language courses.
06500Vietnamese (prior-to-secondary)Vietnamese (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the Vietnamese language and students’ knowledge of Vietnamese-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and vocal tones so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Vietnamese-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06501Vietnamese I Designed to introduce students to Vietnamese language and culture, Vietnamese I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Vietnamese culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of the Vietnamese-speaking people.
06502Vietnamese II Vietnamese II courses build upon skills developed in Vietnamese I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in Vietnamese and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Vietnamese-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06503Vietnamese III Vietnamese III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06504Vietnamese IV Vietnamese IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Vietnamese language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06505Vietnamese V Vietnamese V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06506Vietnamese for Native Speakers Vietnamese for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Vietnamese for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Vietnamese foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06507Vietnamese Field Experience Vietnamese Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where Vietnamese is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06508Vietnamese Conversation and Culture Vietnamese Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the Vietnamese language and the culture(s) of Vietnamese-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06509Vietnamese Literature Vietnamese Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in Vietnamese.
06510IB Language A: Literature—VietnameseIB Language A: Literature—Vietnamese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Vietnamese in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06511IB Language B—Vietnamese IB Language B—Vietnamese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06512IB Language B (Vietnamese), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (Vietnamese), Middle Years Program courses enable students to gain competence in modern Vietnamese and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06513IB Language A: Language and Literature—VietnameseIB Language A: Language and Literature—Vietnamese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Vietnamese in an academic context.
06514IB Language Ab Initio—VietnameseIB Language Ab Initio—Vietnamese courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06520Filipino (prior-to-secondary)Filipino (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the Filipino language and students’ knowledge of Filipino-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Filipino-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06521Filipino I Designed to introduce students to Filipino language and culture, Filipino I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Filipino culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of the people of the Philippines.
06522Filipino II Filipino II courses build upon skills developed in Filipino I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in Filipino and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of the Philippines to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06523Filipino III Filipino III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06524Filipino IV Filipino IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Filipino language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06525Filipino V Filipino V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06526Filipino for Native Speakers Filipino for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Filipino for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Filipino foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06527Filipino Field Experience Filipino Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where Filipino is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06528Filipino Conversation and Culture Filipino Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the Filipino language and the culture(s) of the people of the Philippines, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06529Filipino Literature Filipino Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in Filipino.
06530IB Language A: Literature—FilipinoIB Language A: Literature—Filipino courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Filipino in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06531IB Language B—Filipino IB Language B—Filipino courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students' accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students' "second" language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06532IB Language B (Filipino), Middle Years ProgramIB (International Baccalaureate) Language B (Filipino), Middle Years Program courses enable students to gain competence in modern Filipino and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06533IB Language A: Language and Literature—FilipinoIB Language A: Language and Literature—Filipino courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Filipino in an academic context.
06534IB Language Ab Initio—FilipinoIB Language Ab Initio—Filipino courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06581Southeast Asian Language I Designed to introduce students to a Southeast Asian language not otherwise described (e.g., Malay, Thai, and Lao) and culture, Southeast Asian Language I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions.
06582Southeast Asian Language II Southeast Asian Language II courses build upon skills developed in Southeast Asian Language I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in a Southeast Asian language not otherwise described (e.g., Malay, Thai, and Lao) and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of appropriate people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06583Southeast Asian Language III Southeast Asian Language III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06584Southeast Asian Language IV Southeast Asian Language IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Southeast Asian Language being studied so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06585Southeast Asian Language V Southeast Asian Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06586Southeast Asian Language for Native Speakers Southeast Asian Language for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue not otherwise described (e.g., Malay, Thai, and Lao). Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Southeast Asian Language for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Southeast Asian Language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also include the culture or history of the people and introduce translation skills.
06587Southeast Asian Language Field Experience Southeast Asian Language Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where a Southeast Asian language (e.g., Malay, Thai, and Lao) is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06588Southeast Asian Language Conversation and Culture Southeast Asian Language Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to a Southeast Asian language not otherwise described (e.g., Malay, Thai, and Lao) and the culture(s) of the people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06589Southeast Asian Literature Southeast Asian Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in a Southeast Asian language not otherwise described (e.g., Malay, Thai, and Lao).
06590IB Language A: Literature—Southeast Asian LanguageIB Language A: Literature—Southeast Asian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Southeast Asian Language in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06591IB Language B—Southeast Asian Language IB Language B—Southeast Asian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06592IB Language A: Language and Literature—Southeast Asian LanguageIB Language A: Language and Literature—Southeast Asian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Southeast Asian Language in an academic context.
06593IB Language Ab Initio—Southeast Asian LanguageIB Language Ab Initio—Southeast Asian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06599Southeast Asian Language—Other Other Southeast Asian Language courses.
06600Russian (prior-to-secondary)Russian (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the Russian language and students’ knowledge of Russian-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and vocal tones so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Russian-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06601Russian I Designed to introduce students to Russian language and culture, Russian I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Russian culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of the Russian-speaking people.
06602Russian II Russian II courses build upon skills developed in Russian I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in Russian and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Russian-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06603Russian III Russian III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06604Russian IV Russian IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Russian language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06605Russian V Russian V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06606Russian for Native Speakers Russian for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Russian for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Russian foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06607Russian Field Experience Russian Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where Russian is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06608Russian Conversation and Culture Russian Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the Russian language and the culture(s) of Russian-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06609Russian Literature Russian Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in Russian.
06610IB Language A: Literature—Russian IB Language A: Literature—Russian courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Russian in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06611IB Language B—Russian IB Language B—Russian courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06612IB Language B (Russian), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (Russian), Middle Years Program courses allow students to gain competence in modern Russian and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06613IB Language A: Language and Literature—Russian IB Language A: Language and Literature—Russian courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Russian in an academic context.
06614IB Language Ab Initio—RussianIB Language Ab Initio—Russian courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06641Balto-Slavic Language I Designed to introduce students to a Balto-Slavic language not otherwise described (e.g., Polish, Armenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Lithuanian) and culture, Balto-Slavic Language I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions.
06642Balto-Slavic Language II Balto-Slavic Language II courses build upon skills developed in Balto-Slavic Language I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in a Balto-Slavic language not otherwise described (e.g., Polish, Armenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Lithuanian) and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of appropriate people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06643Balto-Slavic Language III Balto-Slavic Language III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06644Balto-Slavic Language IV Balto-Slavic Language IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Balto-Slavic Language being studied so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06645Balto-Slavic Language V Balto-Slavic Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06646Balto-Slavic Language for Native Speakers Balto-Slavic Language for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue not otherwise described (e.g., Polish, Armenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Lithuanian). Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Balto-Slavic Language for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Balto-Slavic Language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also include the culture or history of the people and introduce translation skills.
06647Balto-Slavic Language Field Experience Balto-Slavic Language Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where a Balto-Slavic language (e.g., Polish, Armenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Lithuanian) is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06648Balto-Slavic Language Conversation and Culture Balto-Slavic Language Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to a Balto-Slavic language not otherwise described (e.g., Polish, Armenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Lithuanian) and the culture(s) of the people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06649Balto-Slavic Literature Balto-Slavic Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in a Balto-Slavic language not otherwise described (e.g., Polish, Armenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Lithuanian).
06650IB Language A: Literature—Balto-Slavic LanguageIB Language A: Literature—Balto-Slavic courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using the Balto-Slavic language in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06651IB Language B—Balto-Slavic Language IB Language B—Balto-Slavic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06652IB Language A: Language and Literature—Balto-Slavic LanguageIB Language A: Language and Literature—Balto-Slavic courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using the Balto-Slavic language in an academic context.
06653IB Language Ab Initio—Balto-Slavic LanguageIB Language Ab Initio—Balto-Slavic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06659Balto-Slavic Language—Other Other Balto-Slavic language courses.
06661Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language I Designed to introduce students to a Turkic/Ural-Altaic language (e.g., Turkish, Finnish, and Hungarian) and culture, Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions.
06662Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language II Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language II courses build upon skills developed in Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in a Turkic/Ural-Altaic language (e.g., Turkish, Finnish, and Hungarian) and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of appropriate people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06663Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language III Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06664Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language IV Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language being studied so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06665Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language V Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06666Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language for Native Speakers Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue (e.g., Turkish, Finnish, and Hungarian). Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also include the culture or history of the people and introduce translation skills.
06667Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language Field Experience Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where a Turkic/Ural-Altaic language (e.g., Turkish, Finnish, and Hungarian) is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06668Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language Conversation and Culture Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to a Turkic/Ural-Altaic language (e.g., Turkish, Finnish, and Hungarian) and the culture(s) of the people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06669Turkic/Ural-Altaic Literature Turkic/Ural-Altaic Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in a Turkic/Ural-Altaic language (e.g., Turkish, Finnish, and Hungarian).
06670IB Language A: Literature—Turkic/Ural-Altaic LanguageIB Language A: Literature—Turkic/Ural-Altaic courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using the Turkic/Ural-Altaic language in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06671IB Language B—Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language IB Language B—Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06672IB Language A: Language and Literature—Turkic/Ural-Altaic LanguageIB Language A: Language and Literature—Turkic/Ural-Altaic courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using the Turkic/Ural-Altaic language in an academic context.
06673IB Language Ab Initio—Turkic/Ural-Altaic LanguageIB Language Ab Initio—Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06679Turkic/Ural-Altaic Language—Other Other Turkic/Ural-Altaic language courses.
06681Iranian/Persian Language I Designed to introduce students to an Iranian/Persian language (e.g., Persian, Kurdish, and Pashto) and culture, Iranian/Persian Language I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions.
06682Iranian/Persian Language II Iranian/Persian Language II courses build upon skills developed in Iranian/Persian Language I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in a Iranian/Persian language (e.g., Persian, Kurdish, and Pashto) and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of appropriate people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06683Iranian/Persian Language III Iranian/Persian Language III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06684Iranian/Persian Language IV Iranian/Persian Language IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Iranian/Persian Language being studied so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06685Iranian/Persian Language V Iranian/Persian Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06686Iranian/Persian Language for Native Speakers Iranian/Persian Language for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue (e.g., Persian, Kurdish, and Pashto). Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Iranian/Persian Language for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Iranian/Persian Language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also include the culture or history of the people and introduce translation skills.
06687Iranian/Persian Language Field Experience Iranian/Persian Language Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where an Iranian/Persian language (e.g., Persian, Kurdish, and Pashto) is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06688Iranian/Persian Language Conversation and Culture Iranian/Persian Language Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to an Iranian/Persian language (e.g., Persian, Kurdish, and Pashto) and the culture(s) of the people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06689Iranian/Persian Literature Iranian/Persian Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in an Iranian/Persian language (e.g., Persian, Kurdish, and Pashto).
06690IB Language A: Literature—Iranian/PersianIB Language A: Literature—Iranian/Persian courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Iranian/Persian in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06691IB Language B—Iranian/Persian Language IB Language B—Iranian/Persian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06692IB Language A: Language and Literature—Iranian/PersianIB Language A: Language and Literature—Iranian/Persian courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Iranian/Persian in an academic context.
06693IB Language Ab Initio—Iranian/Persian LanguageIB Language Ab Initio—Iranian/Persian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06699Iranian/Persian Language—Other Other Iranian/Persian language courses.
06700Hebrew (prior-to-secondary)Hebrew (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the Hebrew language and students’ knowledge of Hebrew-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Hebrew-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06701Hebrew I Designed to introduce students to Hebrew language and culture, Hebrew I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Hebrew culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of the Hebrew-speaking people.
06702Hebrew II Hebrew II courses build upon skills developed in Hebrew I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in Hebrew and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Hebrew-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06703Hebrew III Hebrew III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06704Hebrew IV Hebrew IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Hebrew language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06705Hebrew V Hebrew V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06706Hebrew for Native Speakers Hebrew for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Hebrew for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Hebrew foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06707Hebrew Field Experience Hebrew for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Hebrew for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Hebrew foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06708Hebrew Conversation and Culture Hebrew Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the Hebrew language and the culture(s) of Hebrew-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06709Hebrew Literature Hebrew Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in Hebrew.
06710IB Language A: Literature—HebrewIB Language A: Literature—Hebrew courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Hebrew in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06711IB Language B—Hebrew IB Language B—Hebrew courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06712IB Classical Languages—Hebrew IB Classical Languages—Hebrew courses seek to strike a balance between the study of the language itself (structure, meaning, and formulation) and the study of the civilization it reflects (particularly its culture, philosophies, and institutions). Course content enables students to understand, translate, and appreciate a classical Hebrew text; relate literature to its historical or social background; recognize current relevance of ancient literature; and apply acquired knowledge to other subjects.
06713IB Language B (Hebrew), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (Hebrew), Middle Years Program courses enable students to gain competence in modern Hebrew and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06714IB Language A: Language and Literature—HebrewIB Language A: Language and Literature—Hebrew courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Hebrew in an academic context.
06715IB Language Ab Initio—HebrewIB Language Ab Initio—Hebrew courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06720Arabic (prior-to-secondary)Arabic (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the Arabic language and students’ knowledge of Arabic-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and vocal tones so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Arabic-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06721Arabic I Designed to introduce students to Arabic language and culture, Arabic I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Arabic culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of the Arabic-speaking people.
06722Arabic II Arabic II courses build upon skills developed in Arabic I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in Arabic and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Arabic-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06723Arabic III Arabic III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06724Arabic IV Arabic IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Arabic language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06725Arabic V Arabic V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06726Arabic for Native Speakers Arabic for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Arabic for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Arabic foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06727Arabic Field Experience Arabic Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where Arabic is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06728Arabic Conversation and Culture Arabic Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the Arabic language and the culture(s) of Arabic-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06729Arabic Literature Arabic Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in Arabic.
06730IB Language A: Literature—ArabicIB Language A: Literature—Arabic courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Arabic in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06731IB Language B—Arabic IB Language B—Arabic courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06732IB Classical Languages—Arabic IB Classical Languages—Arabic courses seek to strike a balance between the study of the language itself (structure, meaning, and formulation) and the study of the civilization it reflects (particularly its culture, philosophies, and institutions). Course content enables students to understand, translate, and appreciate a classical Arabic text; relate literature to its historical or social background; recognize current relevance of ancient literature; and apply acquired knowledge to other subjects.
06733IB Language B (Arabic), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (Arabic), Middle Years Program courses allow students to gain competence in modern Arabic and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06734IB Language A: Language and Literature—ArabicIB Language A: Language and Literature—Arabic courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Arabic in an academic context.
06735IB Language Ab Initio—ArabicIB Language Ab Initio—Arabic courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06759Semitic and Near/Middle Eastern Languages—Other Other Semitic and Near/Middle Eastern language courses.
06760Swahili (prior-to-secondary)Swahili (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending the Swahili language and students’ knowledge of Swahili-speaking cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and vocal tones so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Swahili-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06761Swahili I Designed to introduce students to Swahili language and culture, Swahili I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions. Swahili culture is introduced through the art, literature, customs, and history of the Swahili-speaking people.
06762Swahili II Swahili II courses build upon skills developed in Swahili I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in Swahili and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Swahili-speaking people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06763Swahili III Swahili III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06764Swahili IV Swahili IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Swahili language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06765Swahili V Swahili V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06766Swahili for Native Speakers Swahili for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue. Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Swahili for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Swahili foreign language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also incorporate more of the culture or history of the people than do regular foreign language courses and introduce translation skills.
06767Swahili Field Experience Swahili Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where Swahili is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06768Swahili Conversation and Culture Swahili Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to the Swahili language and the culture(s) of Swahili-speaking people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06769Swahili Literature Swahili Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in Swahili.
06770IB Language A: Literature—SwahiliIB Language A: Literature—Swahili courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Swahili in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06771IB Language B—Swahili IB Language B—Swahili courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06772IB Language B (Swahili), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (Swahili), Middle Years Program courses allow students to gain competence in modern Swahili and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06773IB Language A: Language and Literature—SwahiliIB Language A: Language and Literature—Swahili courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Swahili in an academic context.
06774IB Language Ab Initio—SwahiliIB Language Ab Initio—Swahili courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06781Non-Semitic African Language I Designed to introduce students to a Non-Semitic African language not otherwise described (e.g., Ibo, Yoruba, and Amharic) and culture, Non-Semitic African Language I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions.
06782Non-Semitic African Language II Non-Semitic African Language II courses build upon skills developed in Non-Semitic African Language I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in a Non-Semitic African language not otherwise described (e.g., Ibo, Yoruba, and Amharic) and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of appropriate people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06783Non-Semitic African Language III Non-Semitic African Language III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06784Non-Semitic African Language IV Non-Semitic African Language IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Non-Semitic African Language being studied so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06785Non-Semitic African Language V Non-Semitic African Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06786Non-Semitic African Language for Native Speakers Non-Semitic African Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06787Non-Semitic African Language Field Experience Non-Semitic African Language Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where a Non-Semitic African language (e.g., Ibo, Yoruba, and Amharic) is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06788Non-Semitic African Language Conversation and Culture Non-Semitic African Language Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to a Non-Semitic African language not otherwise described (e.g., Ibo, Yoruba, and Amharic) and the culture(s) of the people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06789Non-Semitic African Literature Non-Semitic African Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in a Non-Semitic African language not otherwise described (e.g., Ibo, Yoruba, and Amharic).
06790IB Language A: Literature—Non-Semitic African LanguageIB Language A: Literature—Non-Semitic African Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using the Non-Semitic African language in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06791IB Language B—Non-Semitic African Language IB Language B—Non-Semitic African Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06792IB Language A: Language and Literature—Non-Semitic African LanguageIB Language A: Language and Literature—Non-Semitic African Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using Non-Semitic African language in an academic context.
06793IB Language Ab Initio—Non-Semitic African LanguageIB Language Ab Initio—Non-Semitic African Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06799Non-Semitic African Language—Other Other Non-Semitic African language courses.
06800American Sign Language (prior-to-secondary)American Sign Language (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ ability to communicate with deaf persons through finger spelling, signed words, and gestures. Initial courses emphasize vocabulary and physical expression so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules and conventions. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, and to do so more easily. Course topics may include the culture of and issues facing deaf people.
06801American Sign Language I Designed to introduce students to American Sign Language, American Sign Language I courses enable students to communicate with deaf persons through finger spelling, signed words, and gestures. Course topics may include the culture of and issues facing deaf people.
06802American Sign Language II American Sign Language II courses build upon skills developed in American Sign Language I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in American Sign Language and increasing their vocabulary and speed. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes and to comprehend the language when signed slowly.
06803American Sign Language III American Sign Language III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when viewing the language signed at normal rates and conversing easily within limited situations.
06804American Sign Language IV American Sign Language IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to sign and understand the language so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and in an acceptable pace and have sufficient comprehension skills to understand the language when signed at a normal pace.
06805American Sign Language V American Sign Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs.
06806IB Language B (American Sign Language), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (American Sign Language), Middle Years Program courses allow students to gain competence in modern American Sign Language and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06819American Sign Language—Other Other American Sign Language courses.
06820American Indian Language (prior-to-secondary)American Indian Language (prior-to-secondary) courses introduce and then extend students’ skills in speaking, reading, writing, and comprehending an American Indian language (e.g., Navajo, Cherokee, and Kree) and students’ knowledge of Native American cultures. Initial courses emphasize grammar and syntax, vocabulary, and vocal tones so that students have an understanding of the language and its rules. Later courses advance students’ knowledge and ability to express themselves beyond basic communication (and to understand others, either in a written or verbal format), seeking to enable students to express more complex concepts, in different tenses, and to do so more easily. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of Native American people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06821American Indian Language I Designed to introduce students to a American Indian language not otherwise described (e.g., Navajo, Cherokee, and Kree) and culture, American Indian Language I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions.
06822American Indian Language II American Indian Language II courses build upon skills developed in American Indian Language I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in a American Indian language not otherwise described (e.g., Navajo, Cherokee, and Kree) and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of appropriate people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06823American Indian Language III American Indian Language III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06824American Indian Language IV American Indian Language IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the American Indian Language being studied so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06825American Indian Language V American Indian Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06826American Indian Language for Native Speakers American Indian Language for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue not otherwise described (e.g., Navajo, Cherokee, and Kree). Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), American Indian Language for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular American Indian Language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also include the culture or history of the people and introduce translation skills.
06827American Indian Language Field Experience American Indian Language Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where a American Indian language (e.g., Navajo, Cherokee, and Kree) is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06828American Indian Language Conversation and Culture American Indian Language Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to a American Indian language not otherwise described (e.g., Navajo, Cherokee, and Kree) and the culture(s) of the people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while deemphasizing writing and reading the language.
06829American Indian Literature American Indian Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in a American Indian language not otherwise described (e.g., Navajo, Cherokee, and Kree).
06830IB Language A: Literature—American Indian LanguageIB Language A: Literature—American Indian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using American Indian Language in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06831IB Language B—American Indian Language IB Language B—American Indian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06832IB Language B (American Indian Language), Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Language B (American Indian Language), Middle Years Program courses allow students to gain competence in a modern American Indian Language and encourage respect for and understanding of other languages and cultures.
06833IB Language A: Language and Literature—American Indian LanguageIB Language A: Language and Literature—American Indian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using American Indian Language in an academic context.
06834IB Language Ab Initio—American Indian LanguageIB Language Ab Initio—American Indian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06839American Indian Language—Other Other American Indian language courses.
06841Indic Language I Designed to introduce students to an Indic language (e.g., Hindi, Urdu, Panjabi, and Romany) and culture, Indic Language I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions.
06842Indic Language II Indic Language II courses build upon skills developed in Indic Language I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in an Indic language (e.g., Hindi, Urdu, Panjabi, and Romany) and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of appropriate people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06843Indic Language III Indic Language III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06844Indic Language IV Indic Language IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Indic Language being studied so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06845Indic Language V Indic Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06846Indic Language for Native Speakers Indic Language for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue (e.g., Hindi, Urdu, Panjabi, and Romany). Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Indic Language for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Indic Language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also include the culture or history of the people and introduce translation skills.
06847Indic Language Field Experience Indic Language Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where an Indic language (e.g., Hindi, Urdu, Panjabi, and Romany) is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06848Indic Language Conversation and Culture Indic Language Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to an Indic language (e.g., Hindi, Urdu, Panjabi, and Romany) and the culture(s) of the people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06849Indic Literature Indic Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in an Indic language (e.g., Hindi, Urdu, Panjabi, and Romany).
06850IB Language A: Literature—Indic LanguageIB Language A: Literature—Indic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Indic Language in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06851IB Language B—Indic Language IB Language B—Indic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06852IB Language A: Language and Literature—Indic LanguageIB Language A: Language and Literature—Indic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using the Indic language in an academic context.
06853IB Language Ab Initio—Indic LanguageIB Language Ab Initio—Indic Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06859Indic Language—Other Other Indic language courses.
06861Malayo-Polynesian Language I Designed to introduce students to a Malayo-Polynesian language (e.g., Malay, Indonesian, Hawaiian, and Samoan) and culture, Malayo-Polynesian Language I courses emphasize basic grammar and syntax, simple vocabulary, and the spoken accent so that students can read, write, speak, and understand the language at a basic level within predictable areas of need, using customary courtesies and conventions.
06862Malayo-Polynesian Language II Malayo-Polynesian Language II courses build upon skills developed in Malayo-Polynesian Language I, extending students’ ability to understand and express themselves in a Malayo-Polynesian language (e.g., Malay, Indonesian, Hawaiian, and Samoan) and increasing their vocabulary. Typically, students learn how to engage in discourse for informative or social purposes, write expressions or passages that show understanding of sentence construction and the rules of grammar, and comprehend the language when spoken slowly. Students usually explore the customs, history, and art forms of appropriate people to deepen their understanding of the culture(s).
06863Malayo-Polynesian Language III Malayo-Polynesian Language III courses focus on having students express increasingly complex concepts both verbally and in writing while showing some spontaneity. Comprehension goals for students may include attaining more facility and faster understanding when listening to the language spoken at normal rates, being able to paraphrase or summarize written passages, and conversing easily within limited situations.
06864Malayo-Polynesian Language IV Malayo-Polynesian Language IV courses focus on advancing students’ skills and abilities to read, write, speak, and understand the Malayo-Polynesian Language being studied so that they can maintain simple conversations with sufficient vocabulary and an acceptable accent, have sufficient comprehension to understand speech spoken at a normal pace, read uncomplicated but authentic prose, and write narratives that indicate a good understanding of grammar and a strong vocabulary.
06865Malayo-Polynesian Language V Malayo-Polynesian Language V courses extend students’ facility with the language so that they are able to understand, initiate, and sustain general conversations on topics beyond basic survival needs. Reading and writing tasks will usually include all normal verb tenses (present, past, and future).
06866Malayo-Polynesian Language for Native Speakers Malayo-Polynesian Language for Native Speakers courses support, reinforce, and expand students’ knowledge of their own tongue (e.g., Malay, Indonesian, Hawaiian, and Samoan). Because students understand at least the rudiments and structure of the language and have a working vocabulary (to a greater or lesser degree), Malayo-Polynesian Language for Native Speakers courses often move faster than do regular Malayo-Polynesian Language courses and emphasize literary development (with a study of literature and composition). These courses may also include the culture or history of the people and introduce translation skills.
06867Malayo-Polynesian Language Field Experience Malayo-Polynesian Language Field Experience courses place students in an environment in which they interact with native speakers, most typically in a setting where a Malayo-Polynesian language (e.g., Malay, Indonesian, Hawaiian, and Samoan) is the main language spoken. Students strengthen their language skills (reading, writing, listening, and speaking) and increase their ability to interact naturally.
06868Malayo-Polynesian Language Conversation and Culture Malayo-Polynesian Language Conversation and Culture courses provide students with an introduction to a Malayo-Polynesian language (e.g., Malay, Indonesian, Hawaiian, and Samoan) and the culture(s) of the people, placing greater emphasis on speaking and listening skills while de-emphasizing writing and reading the language.
06869Malayo-Polynesian Literature Malayo-Polynesian Literature courses place an emphasis on reading, understanding, and reacting in writing to literature written in a Malayo-Polynesian language (e.g., Malay, Indonesian, Hawaiian, and Samoan).
06870IB Language A: Literature—Malayo-Polynesian LanguageIB Language A: Literature—Malayo-Polynesian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of literature chosen from the appropriate IB list of texts and authors, written analyses and critiques of this literature, and other oral and written assignments. The course is designed for students highly competent in using Malayo-Polynesian in an academic context and is intended for students with native or near native fluency in the language.
06871IB Language B—Malayo-Polynesian Language IB Language B—Malayo-Polynesian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language B exams at either the standard or higher level. These courses focus on improving students’ accuracy and fluency in oral and written communication (usually in the students’ “second” language). Students preparing to take the standard level exam will be able to understand native speakers; students preparing for the higher level exam will be able to communicate fluently at native speed.
06872IB Language A: Language and Literature—Malayo-Polynesian LanguageIB Language A: Language and Literature—Malayo-Polynesian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Language A: Language and Literature exams at either the standard or higher level. Course content includes in-depth study of composition for purpose and audience, forms of mass communication and the media, and the context and elements of literature. The course includes oral and written assignments and is designed for students highly competent in using the Malayo-Polynesian Language in an academic context.
06873IB Language Ab Initio—Malayo-Polynesian LanguageIB Language Ab Initio—Malayo-Polynesian Language courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses focus on developing the linguistic abilities of students with little or no prior experience with the language of study. Course content includes the study of individuals and society, leisure and work, and urban and rural environments. These courses also provide students with the opportunity to practice and explore this language.
06879Malayo-Polynesian Language—Other Other Malayo-Polynesian language courses.
06995Foreign Language and Literature—Aide Foreign Language and Literature—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
06997Foreign Language and Literature—Independent Study Foreign Language and Literature—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore foreign language-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular language, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
06998Foreign Language and Literature—Workplace Experience Foreign Language and Literature—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to foreign language and literature. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
06999Foreign Language and Literature—Other Other Foreign Language and Literature courses.
07001Religious Foundations Religious Foundations courses’ primary objectives include instruction in the history, tenets, and organization of a religion; development of personal faith and conviction; and exposure to the ways in which daily life may reflect personal religious beliefs. These courses typically include various components particular to a specific religion, such as religious sacraments and symbols, food laws, the authority and structure of the church, the church calendar, and so on.
07002Comparative Religion Comparative Religion courses survey and compare the various forms and values of several world religions, offering students a basic understanding of the world’s diverse religious faiths and practices. Course topics typically include the belief systems of adherents; the relationships among humans, nature, ancestors, and the spiritual world; and the historical development of each religion.
07003Eastern Religions Similar to Comparative Religion, Eastern Religions courses provide students with an overview of various religions and belief systems but focus on those of the Eastern World. Particular religious or philosophical systems of study usually include Buddhism, Hinduism, Islam, Taoism, Shintoism, and Confucianism, among others.
07004Western Religions Similar to Comparative Religion, Western Religions courses provide students with an overview of various religions and belief systems but focus on those of the Western World. Particular religious or philosophical systems of study usually include Judaism; Christianity (including various faiths such as those of Catholics, Episcopalians, Baptists, Quakers, Mormons, Mennonites, and others); and Native Indian belief systems, among others.
07005Scriptures Scriptures courses emphasize understanding and interpreting the sacred writings of a faith (such as the Bible, Torah, Koran, Book of Mormon, and so on) from the standpoint of a religious faith. Course objectives are designed so that students may comprehend the theological, doctrinal, and ethical messages contained within religious scriptures.
07006Old Testament Old Testament courses emphasize understanding and interpreting the sacred writings of the Old Testament from the standpoint of a religious faith and may focus on one or several books. Course content typically focuses on themes, theological concepts, and portrayal of ethical messages, but may also include critique and commentary.
07007New Testament New Testament courses emphasize understanding and interpreting the sacred writings of the New Testament from the standpoint of a religious faith and may focus on one or several religious books. Course content typically focuses on themes, theological concepts, and portrayal of ethical messages, but may also include critique and commentary.
07008Bible History Bible History courses treat the Bible as a historical document and provide an overview of significant biblical events. The content usually includes geography; the relationship among cultures, belief systems, and the events chronicled in the Bible; and early Jewish or Christian Church history.
07009Christology Christology courses concern the work and life of Jesus Christ and the literature related to him. Course content is typically based on Christian scriptures, leading to an examination of the message of Jesus Christ and applying His message to daily life.
07010Religious Figures Religious Figures courses offer students the opportunity to examine the lives and messages of one or several people who are central to a religious faith, such as a prophet, apostle, philosopher, or leader. In addition to a historical study of the person (or people), these courses typically emphasize how the teachings of these individuals influence the faith and culture of a religious group.
07011Liturgy and Prayer Liturgy and Prayer courses vary widely, usually depending upon the underlying religion, but generally seek to inform students about the meaning and message of public and private worship. Course content typically includes an examination or exploration of common rituals, spoken or sung prayers, and observed sacraments.
07012Prayer and Spirituality Prayer and Spirituality courses vary widely, but seek to enable students to experience deeper communion with the divine through public and private worship. Course content may include an examination or exploration of traditional and contemporary practices.
07013Religious Ethics and Morality Usually including an introduction to or examination of the tenets of a particular faith, Religious Ethics and Morality courses seek to enable students to apply the moral teachings of a faith to their own lives, to the larger community, and to their decisionmaking processes. Course content may focus on such issues as peace and justice, death and dying, human sexuality, professional ethics, and human rights.
07014Justice, Peace, and Faith Justice, Peace, and Faith courses examine the scriptural foundations for justice, typically with a historical overview of a faith’s social teaching. These courses discuss such topics as poverty, hunger, conflict, discrimination, justice, and environmental issues, with a view toward developing students’ ability to critically reflect upon and analyze their own roles and responsibilities.
07015Faith and Lifestyle Faith and Lifestyle courses focus on the development of young adults from puberty to adulthood, approached from the perspective of a faith or church. In these courses, the religion’s values and traditions provide an underpinning for examining such topics as identity, independence, sexuality, employment, and leisure. Typically, Faith and Lifestyle courses include discussions about adult roles— single life, marriage, religious life, and ordained ministry.
07016Ministry Ministry courses introduce students to the vocation of service. Students may learn counseling skills, plan and participate in religious services, and minister to younger students or to members of the local community (assisting in hospitals and convalescent homes, crisis centers, soup kitchens, and so on).
07017IB World ReligionsIB World Religions courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate exam at the standard level. These courses are designed to provide students with the means to study the beliefs and practices of nine main religions of the world. These courses may include an in-depth study of several religions with an emphasis on thematic elements. An investigative study of the religious experience is also included.
07995Religious Education and Theology—Aide Religious Education and Theology—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
07997Religious Education and Theology—Independent Study Religious Education and Theology—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors, members of the clergy, or religious leaders as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to religion or theology. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular religion, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
07998Religious Education and Theology—Workplace Experience Religious Education and Theology—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to religion and theology. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
07999Religious Education and Theology—Other Other Religious Education and Theology courses.
08001Physical Education Physical Education courses provide students with knowledge, experience, and an opportunity to develop skills in more than one of the following sports or activities: team sports, individual/dual sports, recreational sports, and fitness/conditioning activities.
08002Team SportsTeam Sports courses provide to students the knowledge, experience, and opportunity to develop skills in more than one team sport (such as volleyball, basketball, soccer, and so on).
08003Individual/Dual Sports Individual/Dual Sports courses provide students with knowledge, experience, and an opportunity to develop skills in more than one individual or dual sport (such as tennis, golf, badminton, jogging/running, racquetball, and so on).
08004Recreation Sports Recreation Sports courses provide students with knowledge, experience, and an opportunity to develop skills in more than one recreational sport or outdoor pursuit (such as adventure activities, croquet, Frisbee, wall climbing, bocce ball, fishing, hiking, cycling, and so on).
08005Fitness/Conditioning Activities Fitness/Conditioning Activities courses emphasize conditioning activities that help develop muscular strength, flexibility, and cardiovascular fitness.
08006Corps Movement Corps Movement courses emphasize physical conditioning, fundamentals of movement, group precision, and public performance. The courses may be intended for members of various teams, including flag corps, rifle corps, cheerleading squads, and so on.
08007Adapted Physical Education These courses provide physical education activities (sports, fitness, and conditioning) adapted for students with special needs.
08008Gymnastics Gymnastics courses are designed to help students develop knowledge and skills in gymnastics, stunts, and tumbling while emphasizing safety. Floor gymnastics may be supplemented by the use of gymnastic equipment such as balance beam, uneven bars, parallel bars, rings, and so on. Gymnastic courses may include other components such as the history of gymnastics and conditioning.
08009Weight Training Weight Training courses help students develop knowledge and skills with free weights and universal stations while emphasizing safety and proper body positioning; they may include other components such as anatomy and conditioning.
08010Aquatics/Water Sports Aquatic/Water Sports courses help students develop skills useful or necessary in an aquatic environment. They may focus on swimming and competitive strokes, such as freestyle, breaststroke, butterfly, and so on or may involve team-oriented water sports, such as water polo and relay swimming. These courses may also include (or concentrate exclusively on) diving and/or lifesaving skills.
08011Tennis Tennis courses help students develop knowledge, skills, and abilities related to the sport of singles or doubles tennis, including shots (such as serves, forehand strokes, backhand strokes, and lobs), scoring, and strategy.
08012Self-defense Self-defense courses help students develop knowledge, skills, and abilities to defend themselves against attack by others, usually incorporating traditional self-defense methods. Students may also be taught techniques from martial arts, addressing the differences among those arts and their contribution to defense and sport.
08013Specific Sports Activities Courses in Specific Sports Activities help students develop knowledge, experience, and skills in a single sport or activity (such as basketball, volleyball, track and field, and equestrian events) other than those coded within this section. (Dance is included under the Fine and Performing Arts subject area.)
08014Physical Education EquivalentPhysical Education Equivalent courses award physical education credit for other at-school activities, such as marching band or cheerleading. (Dance is included under the Fine and Performing Arts subject area.)
08015Off-Campus SportsOff-Campus Sports courses award physical education credit for off-campus sports activities (e.g., swimming, weight training, or any individual or team sports) taken at a community center or other location off the school campus.
08016Lifetime Fitness EducationLifetime Fitness Education courses emphasize acquiring knowledge and skills regarding lifetime physical fitness; content may include related topics such as nutrition, stress management, and consumer issues. Students may develop and implement a personal fitness plan.
08017Sports Physiology Courses in Sports Physiology examine human anatomy and physiology as they pertain to human movement and physical performance in sports activities. These courses may also emphasize the prevention and treatment of athletic injuries.
08028Physical Education (early childhood education)Physical Education (early childhood education) courses emphasize fundamental movement skills, body awareness and control, safety, and the enjoyment of physical activity. Specific content depends upon state standards for early childhood education.
08029Physical Education (pre-kindergarten)Physical Education (pre-kindergarten) courses emphasize fundamental movement skills, body awareness and control, safety, and the enjoyment of physical activity. Specific content depends upon state standards for pre-kindergarten.
08030Physical Education (kindergarten)Physical Education (kindergarten) courses emphasize fundamental movement skills, body awareness and control, safety, and the enjoyment of physical activity. Specific content depends upon state standards for kindergarten.
08031Physical Education (grade 1)Physical Education (grade 1) courses typically emphasize knowledge and skills that lead to health, enjoyment, and social development through physical activity. Course content may include activities that strengthen gross and fine motor skills, body awareness, safety, and the relationship between physical activity and health. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 1.
08032Physical Education (grade 2)Physical Education (grade 2) courses typically emphasize knowledge and skills that lead to health, enjoyment, and social development through physical activity. Course content may include activities that strengthen gross and fine motor skills, body awareness, safety, and the relationship between physical activity and health. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 2.
08033Physical Education (grade 3)Physical Education (grade 3) courses typically involve the acquisition of knowledge and skills that provide the foundation for sport, a physically active lifestyle, and social development through physical activity. Locomotor skills, strength, endurance, flexibility, safety, and rules and conventions of games and sports are often the focus; health education topics may also be included. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 3.
08034Physical Education (grade 4)Physical Education (grade 4) courses typically involve the acquisition of knowledge and skills that provide the foundation for sport, a physically active lifestyle, and social development through physical activity. Locomotor skills, strength, endurance, flexibility, safety, and rules and conventions of games and sports are often the focus; health education topics may also be included. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 4.
08035Physical Education (grade 5)Physical Education (grade 5) courses typically involve the acquisition of knowledge and skills that provide the foundation for sport, a physically active lifestyle, and social development through physical activity. Locomotor skills, strength, endurance, flexibility, safety, and rules and conventions of games and sports are often the focus; health education topics may also be included. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 5.
08036Physical Education (grade 6)Physical Education (grade 6) courses typically involve the acquisition of knowledge and skills that provide the foundation for sport, a physically active lifestyle, and social development through physical activity. Activities typically include those that increase strength, endurance, and flexibility; reinforce safe technique; teach the rules and conventions of games and sports; and explore the relationship between physical activity and health. Health topics (such as the effects of drugs and alcohol, sexual education, and healthy lifestyles) may also be included. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 6.
08037Physical Education (grade 7)Physical Education (grade 7) courses typically involve the acquisition of knowledge and skills that provide the foundation for sport, a physically active lifestyle, and social development through physical activity. Activities typically include those that increase strength, endurance, and flexibility; reinforce safe technique; teach the rules and conventions of games and sports; and explore the relationship between physical activity and health. Health topics (such as the effects of drugs and alcohol, sexual education, and healthy lifestyles) may also be included. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 7.
08038Physical Education (grade 8)Physical Education (grade 8) courses typically involve the acquisition of knowledge and skills that provide the foundation for sport, a physically active lifestyle, and social development through physical activity. Activities typically include those that increase strength, endurance, and flexibility; reinforce safe technique; teach the rules and conventions of games and sports; and explore the relationship between physical activity and health. Health topics (such as the effects of drugs and alcohol, sexual education, and healthy lifestyles) may also be included. Specific content depends upon state standards for grade 8.
08039Physical Education—GeneralPhysical Education—General courses involve content that is not grade differentiated and may apply to a range of consecutive grades (e.g., "by third grade, students should know and be able to do…"). These courses include content that may be applicable to states or localities that do not employ grade-level content standards. [These courses provide broad content that is not organized as described elsewhere (i.e., Physical Education, early childhood education through grade 8).]
08040IB Physical Education, Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Physical Education, Middle Years Program courses aim to facilitate physical, intellectual, emotional, and social development, and to cultivate a healthy and active lifestyle. These courses include activities that are enjoyable and contribute to healthy living. They help students develop motor skills necessary to participate in a variety of physical activities, and to learn about the nature of physical fitness.
08047Physical Education—Independent Study Courses in Physical Education—Independent Study, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to physical education. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular sport or activity, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
08048Physical Education—Workplace Experience Physical Education—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to physical education. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences encountered in the workplace.
08049Physical Education—Other Other Physical Education courses.
08051Health Education Topics covered within Health Education courses may vary widely, but typically include personal health (nutrition, mental health and stress management, drug/alcohol abuse prevention, disease prevention, and first aid) and consumer health issues. The courses may also include brief studies of environmental health, personal development, and/or community resources.
08052Health and Fitness Health and Fitness courses combine the topics of Health Education courses (nutrition, stress management, substance abuse prevention, disease prevention, first aid, and so on) with an active fitness component (typically including aerobic activity and fitness circuits) with the intention of conveying the importance of life-long wellness habits.
08053Community Health Community Health courses cover not only personal health topics (nutrition, stress management, substance abuse prevention, disease prevention, first aid, and so on), but also more general health issues. These additional topics may include (among others) available community resources, fundamentals of the nation’s health care system, contemporary world health issues, and career options within the health field.
08054Special Needs Health Education Special Needs Health Education courses focus on the health requirements of individuals with special needs and emphasize meeting those needs within the home setting. These courses provide information regarding the elderly and individuals with disabilities, handicaps, and/or debilitating illnesses, along with strategies to prepare students for their possible roles as caretakers.
08055Safety and First Aid Safety and First Aid courses provide specialized instruction in first aid techniques, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), relief of obstructed airways, and general safety procedures and behaviors. These courses may include such topics as an overview of community agencies and hotlines providing emergency care and information and opportunities for first aid and CPR certification.
08056Health for Parenting Teens Designed for pregnant teens and/or parents, topics within Health for Parenting Teens courses cover a wide range of both health and parenting issues, typically including prenatal and postnatal care, health and well-being of young parents, child development, stress management, and parental/adult roles. The courses may also involve academic assistance, career exploration, financial management, and so on.
08057Health and Life ManagementHealth and Life Management courses focus as much on consumer education topics (such as money management and evaluation of consumer information and advertising) as on personal health topics (such as nutrition, stress management, drug/alcohol abuse prevention, disease prevention, and first aid). Course objectives include helping students develop decisionmaking, communication, interpersonal, and coping skills and strategies.
08058Substance Abuse Prevention Substance Abuse Prevention courses focus specifically on the health risks of drugs, alcohol and tobacco. These courses provide information on the negative consequences of these products and teach students coping strategies to resist the influences (such as peers and media images) that may entice them to use these substances. Students may also explore the community resources available to them.
08097Health Education—Independent Study Courses in Health Education—Independent Study, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to health and health education. Independent Study courses may provide students with opportunity to expand expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic of special interest in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
08098Health Education—Workplace Experience Health Education—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to health education. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences encountered in the workplace.
08099Health Education—Other Other Health Education courses.
08151Drivers’ Education—Classroom Only Drivers’ Education—Classroom Only courses provide students with the knowledge to become safe drivers on America’s roadways. Topics in these courses include legal obligations and responsibility, rules of the road and traffic procedures, safe driving strategies and practices, and the physical and mental factors affecting the driver’s capability (including alcohol and other drugs).
08152Drivers’ Education—Classroom and Laboratory Drivers’ Education—Classroom and Laboratory courses provide students with the knowledge and experience to become safe drivers on America’s roadways. Topics in these courses cover legal obligations and responsibility, rules of the road and traffic procedures, safe driving strategies and practices, and the physical and mental factors affecting the driver’s capability (including alcohol and other drugs). Experience in driving a vehicle is an essential component of these courses.
08197Drivers’ Education—Independent Study Courses in Drivers’ Education—Independent Study, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to drivers’ education. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
08198Drivers’ Education—Workplace Experience Drivers’ Education—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to drivers’ education. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
08199Drivers’ Education—Other Other Driver's Education courses.
08201Physical Education/Health/Drivers’ Education Physical Education/Health/Drivers’ Education courses combine a range of activities and topics involving physical skills, human health issues, and safe driving. They are offered in ways that cover two or three of these areas. The physical education portion of these courses draws on team, individual, dual, recreational, and/or conditioning activities. The human health portion typically covers issues such as nutrition, stress management, drug/alcohol abuse prevention, and first aid. The drivers’ education portion usually includes legal obligations and responsibilities, rules of the road and traffic procedures, safe driving strategies, and related topics.
08995Physical, Health, and Safety Education—Aide Physical, Health, and Safety Education—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
08997Physical, Health, and Safety Education—Independent Study Courses in Physical, Health, and Safety Education—Independent Study, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to physical, health, and safety education. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced physical, health and/or safety skills.
08998Physical, Health, and Safety Education—Workplace Experience Physical, Health, and Safety Education—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to physical, health, and safety education. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
08999Physical, Health, and Safety Education—Other Other Physical, Health, and Safety Education courses.
09001Introduction to Jr. ROTC Introduction to Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) courses introduce students to the purposes and objectives of the Reserve Officer Training Corps program, which seeks to educate high school students in citizenship, promote community service, and instill responsibility. As part of that introduction, course topics typically include a brief history of the military branches in the United States and the basics of military drill, ceremony, and rank structure.
09002Military Jr. ROTC—unspecified branch Although individual course sequences may vary, the primary objectives of Military Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) courses are to provide students with instruction in the history, organization, role, objectives, and achievements of a particular branch of the U.S. Armed Forces; help them develop personal fitness, strong character, and leadership qualities; and expose them to the career opportunities provided by the U.S. Armed Services. These courses typically cover such topics as military customs, courtesies, rank, drill, and ceremonies and also emphasize citizenship and scholarship. The course content typically includes subjects related to the particular branch being studied (such as map-reading, nautical skills, aerospace technology, or communication technologies), as well as more general subjects (international law, national defense, celestial navigation, and geopolitical strategy).
09003ROTC Drill Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) Drill courses provide students with an additional opportunity to improve their skills in military precision. These courses emphasize marching style and formations, firearm manipulation, body coordination and mechanics, and performing as a member of an orchestrated team. Class members typically participate in ceremonies and competitions.
09004Military Leadership Military Leadership courses focus solely on increasing students’ leadership skills, particularly as they relate to military operations, customs, and hierarchies. These courses are typically a regular part of the ROTC programs described below (typically the final course within a program series); this Military Leadership course code and title should be used when those descriptions do not apply. The principles and skills taught in these courses include supervision, motivation, evaluation, and setting an example, and their application typically include military drill and inspections, athletic events, and other school activities.
09051Army Junior ROTC I Army Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) I courses include instruction in the organization and functions of the U.S. Army, leadership skills, and life skills education. The content of these courses cover (but is not limited to) the history and evolution of the Army, including its structure, operations, customs and courtesies; maps and navigation; first aid, personal hygiene, and field sanitation; and substance abuse prevention. These courses also introduce students to principles of leadership and citizenship.
09052Army Junior ROTC II Army Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) II courses build upon the content of Army Junior ROTC I and include (but are not limited to) ongoing instruction in leadership principles and citizenship; drill and ceremonies; organizational structure; command and staff relationships, functions, and responsibilities; significant military campaigns and leaders; map-reading and orienteering; weapon safety and marksmanship; and survival training.
09053Army Junior ROTC III Army Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) III courses build upon prior Army Junior ROTC courses, giving more emphasis to leadership development. These courses serve to strengthen students’ leadership skills (including planning, problem-solving, motivation, and performance appraisal) and management skills (with regard to time, personnel, and other resources) through allowing them to assume leadership duties. Students study topics introduced in earlier years—such as military history, map-reading and orienteering, marksmanship, and drill and ceremonies—at a more advanced level and are also provided with military service opportunities.
09054Army Junior ROTC IV Army Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) IV courses focus on practical leadership by assigning students to command and staff positions in which they present instruction to lower Army Junior ROTC classes and continue to study and review staff functions and actions, staff-commander relationships, and leadership principles. Topics introduced in earlier years may be studied at more advanced levels.
09101Naval Junior ROTC I Naval Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) I courses emphasize citizenship and leadership development, as well as maritime heritage, sea power, and Naval operations and customs. These courses include (but are not limited to) an introduction to the Naval Junior ROTC program, U.S. Navy mission and organization, maritime geography, naval history, basic seamanship, oceanography, and health education.
09102Naval Junior ROTC II Naval Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) II courses build upon the content of Naval Junior ROTC I. These courses include (but are not limited to) leadership principles and discipline, citizenship, naval opportunities and career planning, naval ships and weaponry, seamanship, meteorology and weather, and survival training. Students continue to learn teamwork, naval history, and military principles.
09103Naval Junior ROTC III Naval Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) III courses build upon prior Naval Junior ROTC courses. These courses include (but are not limited to) leadership principles and discipline, military justice, international law and the sea, naval intelligence/strategies and national security, and sciences involved in naval operations, such as electricity, electronics, communications technologies, and so on. Students continue to learn teamwork, naval history, and military principles.
09104Naval Junior ROTC IV Naval Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) IV courses are focused on practical leadership, placing students in positions where they can learn, practice, and understand skills involved in leading others, such as supervision, motivation, evaluation, setting examples, and problem-solving. Application of these skills usually includes military drill and inspections, athletic events, and other school activities. Topics introduced in earlier years may be studied at more advanced levels.
09151Air Force Junior ROTC I Air Force Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) I courses include both aerospace studies and leadership/life skills education. In these courses, leadership/life skills lessons cover the heritage and development of the Air Force, including its structure, operations, customs, and courtesies. Aerospace topics include the development, history, and impact of flight; aircraft and spacecraft; and the environment in which these crafts operate.
09152Air Force Junior ROTC II Air Force Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) II courses include both aerospace studies and leadership/life skills education. In these courses, leadership/life skills lessons cover intercommunication skills, drill, and military ceremonies. Aerospace topics emphasize the science of flight, including factors of aerospace power, aircraft flight, and navigation.
09153Air Force Junior ROTC III Air Force Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) III courses include both aerospace studies and leadership/life skills education. These courses continue to develop students’ life and leadership skills and the ways in which they apply to military life. Aerospace topics emphasize space technology and exploration; examine national defense systems; and advance students’ knowledge of aviation, propulsion, and navigation.
09154Air Force Junior ROTC IV Air Force Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) IV courses include both aerospace studies and leadership/life skills education. The life skills education portion of these courses concentrates on leadership and management principles and career opportunities, and aerospace topics include advanced aerodynamics and aeronautics. Course content may also cover elements of national power and relationships between the nations of the world.
09201Marine Corps Junior ROTC I Marine Corps Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) I courses introduce the Marine Corps Junior ROTC program, with an emphasis on personal growth and responsibility along with general military subjects. These courses include (but are not limited to) physical training; health education, including hygiene, first aid, nutrition, and substance abuse prevention; and communication skills. In these courses, students are introduced to and study Marine Corps values and code of conduct; drill and ceremony; military uniforms, customs, and courtesies; military history; and the Marine Corps structure and chain of command.
09202Marine Corps Junior ROTC II Marine Corps Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) II courses build upon Marine Corps Junior ROTC I. These courses emphasize personal growth and responsibility, leadership, and citizenship along with military subjects that typically include the mission, organization, and history of the Marine Corps; geography, maps, and navigation; drill and ceremony; and military justice. Students learn about such leadership skills as authority, responsibility, and accountability and citizenship topics including U.S. government structures, documents, and symbols.
09203Marine Corps Junior ROTC III Marine Corps Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) III courses build upon prior Marine Corps Junior ROTC courses. These courses include (but are not limited to) leadership practice, including training, inspection and evaluation; public service career opportunities; and citizenship responsibilities. These courses cover such personal skills as financial planning, saving and investing, and evaluating credit and insurance terms. Students learn about the structures of other armed service branches, advance their mapping and navigation skills, and may study firearm use, safety and marksmanship. Students continue to learn teamwork, Marine Corps history, and military principles.
09204Marine Corps Junior ROTC IV Marine Corps Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) IV courses focus on the practical application of skills learned throughout the program: leadership, communication (written and verbal), personal growth, and public service. These courses emphasize drill and ceremony, physical fitness, marksmanship, land navigation, and military history at more advanced levels than in previous courses.
09995Military Science—Aide Military Science—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
09997Military Science—Independent Study Courses in Military Science—Independent Study, often conducted with instructors/armed services personnel as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to military science. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
09998Military Science—Workplace Experience Military Science—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience within the field of military science and are supported by classroom attendance and discussion. In these courses, goals are set for the employment period, and classroom experience may involve further study in the field, improvement of employability skills, or discussion regarding the experiences and problems that students encounter on the job.
09999Military Science—Other Other Military Sciences courses.
10001Introduction to Computer Technology Formerly known as Introduction to Computers, Introduction to Computer Technology courses introduce students to computers, including peripheral and mobile devices; the functions and uses of computer technology; the language used in the industry; possible applications of various computer-based technologies; and occupations related to computer technology hardware and software industries. These courses typically explore legal and ethical issues associated with computer technology use, as well as how changes influence modern society. Students may also be required to perform some computer technology operations.
10002Computing Systems Computing Systems courses offer a broad exploration of the use of computers in a variety of fields. These courses have a considerable range of content, but typically include the introduction of robotics and control systems, computer-assisted design, computer-aided manufacturing systems, and other computer technologies as they relate to industry applications.
10003Computer and Information Technology Computer and Information Technology courses teach students to operate and use computer and information technology, emphasizing their role as tools to communicate more effectively, conduct research more efficiently, and increase productivity. Course content includes the legal and ethical issues involved with computer technology and use.
10004Computer ApplicationsIn Computer Applications courses, students acquire knowledge of and experience in the proper and efficient use of previously written software packages. These courses explore a wide range of applications, including (but not limited to) word-processing, spreadsheet, presentation, graphics, and database programs. Courses may also cover the use of electronic mail and online collaborative software.
10005Business Computer ApplicationsIn Business Computer Applications courses, students expand their knowledge of and experience in the proper and efficient use of previously written software packages, particularly those used in business. Generally, these courses explore a wide range of applications including (but not limited to) word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, graphics, and database programs, and they may also cover topics such as electronic mail, desktop publishing, and telecommunications. Advanced topics may include integrated software applications, including printed, electronic, and Web publications; computer maintenance activities; and Web site development.
10006TelecommunicationsTelecommunications courses address the growth in global communications and the emerging equipment and systems needed to successfully communicate in a global environment. These courses cover such topics as data communication protocol and systems, government regulations of the communications industry, the use of cost-effective and productive tools to transmit messages and data, and live synchronistic video exchanges. Other topics may include telecommunications terminology, tools and test equipment; customer service experience; and installation, repair, and delivery of telecommunications systems. In these courses, students may learn about such communication systems as e-mail, internet, or e-commerce, local area network (LAN), wide area network (WAN), voice transmission, cell phone technology, teleconferencing, and videoconferencing.
10007IB Information Technology in a Global Society IB Information Technology in a Global Society courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Information Technology exams and examine the interaction among information, technology, and society. Course content is designed to help students develop a systematic, problem solving approach to processing and analyzing information using a range of information tools. In these courses, students also discuss and evaluate how modern information technology affects individuals, relationships among people, and institutions and societies.
10008Particular Topics in Computer Literacy These courses examine particular topics related to general computer literacy other than those already described, such as privacy issues or instruction in using a particular software application.
10009Internet SkillsInternet Skills courses introduce students to the World Wide Web and the Internet. Course content may include search techniques and algorithms, web browser utilization, website creation, and the history of the Internet.
10010Computer LiteracyComputer Literacy courses provide to students the knowledge and ability to use computers and technology efficiently. Typically, course content includes exposure to word-processing, spreadsheet, and presentation applications, but also may include the various uses of computers in modern society. Specific course content aligns with state standards to promote students’ technological literacy.
10011Computer Science PrinciplesComputer Science Principles courses provide students the opportunity use programming, computational thinking, and data analytics to create digital artifacts and documents representing design and analysis in areas including the Internet, algorithms, and the impact that these have on science, business, and society. Computer Science Principles courses teach students to use computational tools and techniques including abstraction, modeling, and simulation to collaborate in solving problems that connect computation to their lives.
10012Exploring Computer ScienceExploring Computer Science courses present students with the conceptual underpinnings of computer science through an exploration of human computer interaction, web design, computer programming, data modeling, and robotics. While these courses include programming, the focus is on the computational practices associated with doing computer science, rather than just a narrow focus on coding, syntax, or tools. Exploring Computer Science courses teach students the computational practices of algorithm design, problem solving, and programming within a context that is relevant to their lives.
10013PLTW Introduction to Computer ScienceFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Introduction to Computer Science courses prepare students for other computer science courses and introduce them to the impact and application of computing. These courses provide students with the opportunity to create interactive stories, develop simple mobile applications, and analyze personal health and social habit data using spreadsheet programs.
10014PLTW Computer Science ApplicationsFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum to prepare students for the College Board’s Advanced Placement Computer Science A exam, PLTW Computer Science Applications courses focus on integrating technologies across multiple platforms and networks. In these courses, students collaborate to produce programs and analyze, adapt, and improve each other’s programs using industry-standard programming and software tools.
10015PLTW Computer Science and Software EngineeringFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Computer Science and Software Engineering courses are designed to help students develop computational thinking, and introduce students to possible career paths involving computing. These courses help students build programming expertise and familiarity with the Internet using multiple platforms and programming languages. Course content may include application development, task automation using computer languages, pattern recognition, visualization of data, cybersecurity, robotics, and simulation. Ethical and social issues of computing and connectivity are also explored.
10016PLTW CybersecurityFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Cybersecurity courses introduce students to the tools and concepts of cybersecurity. In these courses, students are encouraged to understand vulnerabilities in computational resources and to create solutions that allow people to share computing resources while retaining privacy. These courses also introduce students to issues related to ethical computing behavior.
10017PLTW Simulation and ModelingFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Simulation and Modeling courses allow students to create models and simulate social, physical, and biological systems and deepen their understanding of discrete math and computer science concepts. These courses emphasize collaboration, professional writing, and the scientific method as students use statistics and data analysis methods to understand systems and predict behaviors.
10018PLTW Artificial IntelligenceFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Artificial Intelligence courses provide students with the opportunity to develop an artificially intelligent system that can create solutions to real science and industry problems. These courses expose students such computer applications as automated vehicles and computer vision. Courses also focus on analyzing problems of computational difficulty and identifying solutions for computational efficiency.
10047Computer Literacy—Independent Study Computer Literacy—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore computer-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
10048Computer Literacy—Workplace Experience Computer Literacy—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to computer literacy. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
10049Computer Literacy—Other Other Computer Literacy courses.
10051Information Management Information Management courses provide students with the knowledge and skills to develop and implement a plan for an information system that meets the needs of business. Students develop an understanding of information system theory, skills in administering and managing information systems, and the ability to analyze and design information systems.
10052Database Management and Data Warehousing Database Management and Data Warehousing courses provide students with the skills necessary to design databases to meet user needs. Courses typically address how to enter, retrieve, and manipulate data into useful information. More advanced topics may cover implementing interactive applications for common transactions and the utility of mining data.
10053Database Applications Database Application courses provide students with an understanding of database development, modeling, design, and normalization. These courses typically cover such topics as SELECT statements, data definition, manipulation, control languages, records, and tables. In these courses, students may use Oracle WebDB, SQL, PL/SQL, SPSS, and SAS and may prepare for certification.
10054Data Systems/Processing Data Systems/Processing courses introduce students to the uses and operation of computer hardware and software and to the programming languages used in business applications. Students typically use BASIC, COBOL, and/or RPL languages as they write flowcharts or computer programs and may also learn data-processing skills.
10055Particular Topics in Management Information Systems These courses examine particular topics in management information systems other than those already described.
10097Management Information Systems—Independent Study Management Information Systems—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics related to management information systems. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
10098Management Information Systems—Workplace Experience Management Information Systems—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to management information systems. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
10099Management Information Systems—Other Other Management Information Systems courses.
10101Network Technology Network Technology courses address the technology involved in the transmission of data between and among computers through data lines, telephone lines, or other transmission media, such as hard wiring, wireless, cable networks, and so on. These courses may emphasize the capabilities of networks, network technology itself, or both. Students typically learn about network capabilities and network technology, including the software, hardware, and peripherals involved in setting up and maintaining a computer network.
10102Networking Systems Networking Systems courses are designed to provide students with the opportunity to understand and work with hubs, switches, and routers. Students develop an understanding of LAN (local area network), WAN (wide area network), wireless connectivity, and Internet-based communications (including cloud-based computing), with a strong emphasis on network function, design, and installation practices. Students acquire skills in the design, installation, maintenance, and management of network systems that may help them obtain network certification.
10103Area Network Design and Protocols Area Network Design and Protocols courses address the role of computers in a network system, the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model, structured wiring systems, and simple LAN (local area network) and WAN (wide area network) designs.
10104Router Basics Router Basics courses teach students about router components, installation, and configuration using routers (e.g., CISCO) switches and the IOS (Internetwork Operation System). These courses also cover such topics as TCP/IP protocol, IP addressing, subnetting concepts, and network trouble-shooting.
10105NetWare Routing NetWare Routing courses introduce students to such topics as Virtual LANs (VLAN) and switched internetworking, comparing traditional shared local area network (LAN) configurations with switched LAN configurations, and they also discuss the benefits of using a switched VLAN architecture. These courses also may cover routing protocols like RIP, IGRP, Novell IPX, and Access Control Lists (ACLs).
10106Wide Area Telecommunications and Networking Wide Area Telecommunications and Networking courses provide students with the knowledge and skills to enable them to design Wide Area Networks (WANs) using ISDN, Frame-Relay, and PPP. These courses provide students with an understanding of internetworking and expertise in trouble-shooting and assessing the adequacy of network configurations to meet changing conditions. Topics may include also Local Area Network (LAN) segmentation.
10107Wireless NetworksWireless Networks courses focus on the design, planning, implementation, operation, and trouble-shooting of wireless computer networks, including local access networks (LANs). These courses typically include a comprehensive overview of best practices in technology, security, and design.
10108Network SecurityNetwork Security courses provide students with an understanding of network security principles and implementation. Course topics usually include authentication, the types of attacks and malicious code that may be used against computer networks, the threats and countermeasures for e-mail, Web applications, remote access, and file and print services. These courses may also cover a variety of security topologies as well as technologies and concepts used for providing secure communication channels, secure internetworking devices, intrusion detection systems, and firewalls.
10109Essentials of Network Operating Systems Essentials of Network Operating Systems courses provide students with an overview of multi-user, multi-tasking network operating systems. In these courses, students study the characteristics of operating systems, such as Linux, and various Windows network operating systems and explore a range of topics including installation procedures, security issues, back-up procedures, and remote access. Advanced topics may include network administration, including account management, training, evaluating new technology, developing system policies, troubleshooting, e-mail and business communications and Web site management.
10110Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP) Microsoft Certified Professional courses provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary to be employed as a network administrator in the latest Windows server-networking environment. Topics include installing, configuring, and trouble-shooting the Windows server. These courses prepare students to set up network connections; manage security issues and shares; and develop policies. Students are typically encouraged to take the MCP exam.
10111Particular Topics in Networking Systems These courses examine particular topics in networking systems other than those already described.
10112Local Area NetworkingLocal Area Networking courses introduce students to local area networking (LAN) administration skills, operating systems, basic user skills, defining network objects, building a simple LAN topology applying principles of cabling, LAN switching, designing file systems, managing user access, securing file systems, working with directory service software security, implementing network printing, implementing login scripts, and managing user environments.
10147Networking Systems—Independent Study Networking Systems—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics related to networking systems. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
10148Networking Systems—Workplace Experience Networking Systems—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to networking systems. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
10149Networking Systems—Other Other Networking Systems courses.
10151Business Programming Business Programming courses provide students with experience in using previously written software packages. Topics may include loops, arrays, and functions as well as instruction on how to design and write programs of their own. These courses contain a business industry focus and provide an overview of the principles of object-oriented design and programming (e.g., Visual Basic [VB], C++, Java, RPL) related to the business industry.
10152Computer ProgrammingComputer Programming courses provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary to construct computer programs in one or more languages. Computer coding and program structure are often introduced with the BASIC language, but other computer languages, such as Visual Basic (VB), Java, Pascal, C++, and C#, may be used instead. Students learn to structure, create, document, and debug computer programs. Advanced courses may include instruction in object-oriented programming to help students develop applications for Windows, database, multimedia, games, mobile and/or Web environments. An emphasis is placed on design, style, clarity, and efficiency. In these courses, students apply the skills they learn to relevant authentic applications.
10153Visual Basic (VB) Programming Visual Basic (VB) Programming courses provide an opportunity for students to gain expertise in computer programs using the Visual Basic (VB) language. As with more general computer programming courses, the emphasis is on how to structure and document computer programs and how to use problem-solving techniques. These courses cover such topics as the use of text boxes, scroll bars, menus, buttons, and Windows applications. More advanced topics may include mathematical and business functions and graphics.
10154C++ Programming C++ Programming courses provide an opportunity for students to gain expertise in computer programs using the C++ language. As with more general computer programming courses, the emphasis is on how to write logically structured programs, include appropriate documentation, and use problem-solving techniques. More advanced topics may include multi-dimensional arrays, functions, sorting, loops, and records.
10155Java Programming Java Programming courses provide students with the opportunity to gain expertise in computer programs using the Java language. As with more general computer programming courses, the emphasis is on how to structure and document computer programs, using problem-solving techniques. Topics covered in the course include syntax, I/O classes, string manipulation, and recursion.
10156Computer Programming—Other Language Computer Programming—Other Language courses provide students with the opportunity to gain expertise in computer programs using languages other than those specified (such as Pascal, FORTRAN, Python, or emerging languages). As with other computer programming courses, the emphasis is on how to structure and document computer programs, using problem-solving techniques. As students advance, they learn how to best utilize the features and strengths of the language being used.
10157AP Computer Science A Following the College Board’s suggested curriculum designed to mirror college-level computer science courses, AP Computer Science A courses emphasize object-oriented programming methodology with a focus on problem solving and algorithm development. These courses cover such topics as object-oriented program design; program implementation; program analysis; standard data structures; standard algorithms; and the ethical and social implications of computing systems.
10159IB Computer ScienceIB Computer Science courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Computer Science exam at either the standard or higher level. The courses emphasize system fundamentals, computer organization, and networks, as well as the fundamental concepts of computational thinking, the development of practical computational solutions, and programming. IB Computer Science courses also cover the applications and effects of the computer on modern society as well as the limitations of computer technology.
10160Particular Topics in Computer Programming These courses examine particular topics in computer programming other than those already described.
10197Computer Programming—Independent Study Computer Programming—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics related to computer programming. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
10198Computer Programming—Workplace Experience Computer Programming—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to computer programming. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
10199Computer Programming—Other Other Computer Programming courses.
10201Web Page Design Web Page Design courses teach students how to design websites by introducing them to and refining their knowledge of site planning, page layout, graphic design, and the use of markup languages—such as Extensible Hypertext Markup, JavaScript, Dynamic HTML, Document Object Model, and Cascading Style Sheets—to develop and maintain a web page. These courses may also cover security and privacy issues, copyright infringement, trademarks, and other legal issues relating to the use of the Internet. Advanced topics may include the use of forms and scripts for database access, transfer methods, and networking fundamentals.
10202Computer Graphics Computer Graphics courses provide students with the opportunity to explore the ways in which computers can produce visual imagery that communicates information and ideas effectively to multiple audiences using a variety of media and formats. Course topics may include principles and elements of design, image creation, image manipulation, and image types.
10203Interactive Media Interactive Media courses provide students with the knowledge and skills to create, design, and produce interactive digital media products and services. The courses may emphasize the development of digitally generated and/or computer-enhanced media. Course topics may include 3D animation, graphic media, web development, and virtual reality. Upon completion of these courses, students may be prepared for industry certification.
10204Particular Topics in Media Technology These courses examine particular topics in internet design and applications other than those already described.
10205Computer Gaming and DesignComputer Gaming and Design courses prepare students to design computer games by studying design, animation, artistic concepts, digital imaging, coding, scripting, multimedia production, and game play strategies. Advanced course topics include, but are not limited to, level design, environment and 3D modeling, scene and set design, motion capture, and texture mapping.
10206Mobile ApplicationsMobile Applications courses provide students with opportunities to create applications for mobile devices using a variety of commercial and open source software. These courses typically address the installation and modification of these applications, as well as customer service skills to handle user issues.
10247Media Technology—Independent Study Media Technology—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics related to media technology. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
10248Media Technology—Workplace Experience Media Technology—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to media technology. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
10249Media Technology—Other Other Media Technology courses.
10251Computer Technology Computer Technology courses introduce students to the features, functions, and design of computer hardware and provide instruction in the maintenance and repair of computer components and peripheral devices.
10252Computer Maintenance Computer Maintenance courses prepare students to apply basic electronic theory and principles in diagnosing and repairing personal computers and input/output devices. Topics may include operating, installing, maintaining, and repairing computers, network systems, digital control instruments, programmable controllers, and processors.
10253Information Support and Services Information Support and Services courses prepare students to assist users of personal computers by diagnosing their problems in using application software packages and maintaining security requirements.
10254IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software courses provide students with in-depth exposure to computer hardware and operating systems. Course topics include the functionality of hardware and software components as well as suggested best practices in maintenance and safety issues. Students learn to assemble and configure a computer, install operating systems and software, and troubleshoot hardware and software problems. In addition, these courses introduce students to networking and often prepare them for industry certification.
10255CISCO—The Panduit Network Infrastructure Essentials (PNIE)CISCO—PNIE courses provide students with the knowledge to create innovative network infrastructure solutions. These courses offer students basic cable installer information and help them acquire the skills to build and use the physical layer of network infrastructure and develop a deeper understanding of networking devices.
10256Particular Topics in Information Support and Services These courses examine particular topics in computer support, maintenance, and repair other than those already described.
10297Information Support and Services—Independent Study Information Support and Services—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics related to computer information support and services. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
10298Information Support and Services—Workplace ExperienceInformation Support and Services—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to information support and/or service. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
10299Information Support and Services—Other Other Information Support and Services courses.
10301Computer ForensicsComputer Forensics courses address the preservation, identification, extraction, documentation, and interpretation of computer data. Topics covered may include legal concepts, evidence handling and preservation, file system structures, chain of custody, and identification and recovery of computer data. These courses may also cover the need to perform an investigation and how to collect evidence and analyze data.
10302Cyber CrimeCyber Crime courses cover legal and ethical behavior associated with network security. Topics may include discussions about current common practices used to secure networks, how to test these networks, and presents methods that can be used to create a secure network environment. These courses may also cover the impact federal and state legislation has had on information technology practices.
10995Information Technology—Aide Formerly Computer and Information Sciences—Aide, Information Technology—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
10997Information Technology—Independent Study Formerly Computer and Information Sciences—Independent Study, Information Technology—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore computer-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
10998Information Technology—Workplace Experience Formerly Computer and Information Sciences —Workplace Experience, Information Technology—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to computer and/or information sciences. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
10999Information Technology—Other Other Information Technology courses.
11001Introduction to CommunicationIntroduction to Communication courses enable students to understand and critically evaluate the role of media in society. Course content typically includes investigation of visual images, printed material, and audio segments as tools of information, entertainment, and communication to influence opinion; improvement of presentation and evaluative skills in relation to mass media; recognition of various techniques for delivery of a particular message; and, in some cases, creation of a media product. The course may concentrate on a particular medium.
11002Communication Technology Communication Technology courses enable students to effectively communicate ideas and information through experiences dealing with drafting, design, electronic communication, graphic arts, printing process, photography, telecommunications, and computers. Additional topics covered in the course include information storage and retrieval. Drafting equipment may be used to make scale drawings, including multi-view drawing, photographs, and poster mock-ups.
11003Particular Topics in Communication These courses examine specific topics in communication other than those already described.
11004Social MediaSocial Media courses expose students to various types of social media and how social media has influenced society. These courses emphasize the forms, functions, regulations, implications, and utilization of social media.
11047Communication—Independent Study Communication—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to mass communications. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
11048Communication—Workplace Experience Communication—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to communication. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
11049Communication—Other Other Communication courses.
11051Audio/Visual Production Audio/Visual Production courses provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary for television, video, film, and/or radio production. Writing scripts, camera operation, use of graphics and other visuals, lighting, audio techniques, editing, production principles, and career opportunities are typical topics covered within production courses. Students are usually required to produce their own program or segment. Additional topics such as broadcast industry regulations, radio/TV operation, power of the medium, photography, transmission technology, and so on may be included.
11052Commercial PhotographyCommercial Photography courses provide instruction in the use of cameras and laboratory film- processing techniques. Topics covered in the course include composition and color dynamics; contact printing; enlarging; developing audio and visual images; use of camera meters, air brushes, and other photographic equipment; portrait, commercial, and industrial photography; processing microfilm; and preparing copy for printing or for graphic arts processing.
11053Photographic Laboratory and Darkroom Photographic Laboratory and Darkroom courses prepare students to develop and print still or motion picture film. Topics covered in the course may include controlling resultant prints; touching up negatives; and finishing, coloring, restoring, and copying prints.
11054Photo Imaging Photo Imaging courses provide students with the opportunity to effectively communicate ideas and information via digital, film, still and video photography. Topics covered typically include composition, layout, lighting and supplies. More advanced courses may include instruction in specialized camera and equipment maintenance, application to commercial and industrial need and photography business operations.
11055Video Video courses enable students to explore video communications, incorporating both the technical and artistic aspects of video media. Topics covered in the course include the use of video equipment and techniques, and students typically create a video presentation. Advanced course topics may include creating various forms of film media including silent film; sport and music video; and self portrait video.
11056Particular Topics in Audio/Video Technology and FilmThese courses examine specific topics in audio and video technology and film other than those already described.
11097Audio/Video Technology and Film—Independent Study Audio/Video Technology and Film—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to A/V technology or film. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
11098Audio/Video Technology and Film—Workplace Experience Audio/Video Technology and Film—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to audio/visual technology and/or film. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
11099Audio/Video Technology and Film—Other Other Audio/Video Technology and Film courses.
11101JournalismJournalism courses (typically associated with the production of a school newspaper, yearbook, or literary magazine) emphasize writing style and technique as well as production values and organization. Journalism courses introduce students to the concepts of newsworthiness and press responsibility; develop students’ skills in writing and editing stories, headlines, and captions; and teach students the principles of production design, layout, and printing. Photography, photojournalism, and digital technology skills may be included.
11102PhotojournalismPhotojournalism courses expose students to the manner in which photography is used to convey information and experiences. Typically coordinated with production of the school newspaper, yearbook, or other media product, photojournalism courses provide students with the opportunity to improve their photo composition and digital technology skills, and to apply their art to journalistic endeavors. These courses may also cover film development.
11103Broadcasting Technology Broadcasting Technology courses provide students with the knowledge and skills to produce television broadcast programs. Typically, students prepare and produce short programs, learning the technical aspects of the operation and how to evaluate programming and assess audience reaction and impact.
11104Publication Production Publication Production courses provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary to produce the school newspaper, yearbook, literary magazine, or other printed publication. Students may gain experience in several components (writing, editing, layout, production, and so on) or may focus on a single aspect while producing the publication.
11105Particular Topics in Journalism and Broadcasting These courses examine specific topics in journalism and broadcasting other than those already described.
11106Emerging Technologies in JournalismEmerging Technologies in Journalism courses promote the development of the necessary skills for journalism. Course topics may include an exploration of the role media and the communications industry has in society, technical skills related to journalistic writing and interviewing, electronic communications, journalistic blogging, and the ethical and legal issues related to technology in media and communications.
11107Radio ProductionRadio Production courses address practices related to the management and operation of a broadcasting station. Students are introduced to the radio industry, news reporting, and broadcast engineering. In these courses, students learn basic electricity and electronics, including all aspects of safety. Topics typically include operating audio boards, announcing, creating and producing audio scripts, and using digital audio software. Advanced courses may explore direct programming, on-air performance, and analysis of ratio markets.
11147Journalism and Broadcasting—Independent Study Journalism and Broadcasting—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to journalism, broadcasting, and mass media. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
11148Journalism and Broadcasting—Workplace Experience Journalism and Broadcasting—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to journalism or broadcasting. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
11149Journalism and Broadcasting—Other Other Journalism and Broadcasting courses.
11151Digital Media Technology These courses are designed to give students the skills necessary to support and enhance their learning about digital medial technology. Topics covered in the course may include internet research, copyright laws, web-publishing, use of digital imagery, electronic forums, newsgroups, mailing lists, presentation tools, and project planning.
11152Desktop Publishing Desktop Publishing courses integrate the knowledge and skills learning in word processing with the concepts, procedures and application of desktop publishing. Students learn to format, create and proofread brochures, programs, newsletters, web pages, presentations and manuscripts.
11153Digital Media Design and Production Digital Media Design and Production courses teach students the fundamentals of graphic design and production and provide students with the opportunity to apply these principles to printed media, digital presentation media, and interactive media.
11154Commercial Graphic Design Commercial Graphic Design courses teach students to use artistic techniques to effectively communicate ideas and information to business and customer audiences via illustration and other forms of digital or printed media. Topics covered may include concept design, layout, paste-up and techniques such as engraving, etching, silkscreen, lithography, offset, drawing and cartooning, painting, collage and computer graphics.
11155Graphic Technology Graphic Technology courses help students apply artistic and computer techniques to the interpretation of technical and commercial concepts. Topics covered may include computer assisted art and design, printmaking, concept sketching, technical drawing, color theory, imaging, studio techniques, still life modeling, and commercial art business operations. Advanced topics may include topographic arrangements of print and/or electronic graphic and textual products, printing and lithographic equipment and operations, digital imaging, print preparation, desktop publishing and web page design.
11156Photography and Printing Technology Photography and Printing Technology courses expose students to the tools, materials and processes involved in mass production of photography and printing. Types of printing covered in the course may include intaglio, relief, planographic, screen processes printing, silk screening, serigraphy processes and thermograph. Additional topics may include the use of cameras, composition, imposition, presswork, and computer aided publishing.
11157Photoengraving Photoengraving courses teach students to photograph illustration and other copy that cannot be set in type, to develop negatives, and to prepare photosensitized metal plates for use in printing.
11158Print Press Operations These courses expose students to the necessary skills for operating a print press. Topics covered in this course include how to prepare, operate and maintain printing processes.
11159Particular Topics in Printing Technology and ProductionThese courses examine specific topics in printing production, such as bookbinding or silkscreen printmaking, other than those already described.
11197Printing Technology—Independent Study Printing Technology—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to the print medium. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
11198Printing Technology—Workplace Experience Printing Technology—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to printing. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
11199Printing Technology—Other Other Printing Technology courses.
11995Communication and Audio/Video Technology—AideCommunication and Audio/Video Technology—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
11997Communication and Audio/Video Technology—Independent Study Communication and Audio/Video Technology—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to mass communication and its technologies. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
11998Communication and Audio/Video Technology—Workplace ExperienceCommunication and Audio/Video Technology—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to communication or audio/visual technology. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
11999Communication and Audio/Video Technology—Other 1199Other Communication and Audio/Video Technology courses.
12001Business/Office Career Exploration Business/Office Career Exploration courses expose students to the occupational opportunities available in business including, but not limited to, general business, business information management, human resources management, operations management, administrative support, accounting, and marketing fields. Emphasis is placed on responsibilities, qualifications, work environments, and career paths. These courses may also include consumer education topics, keyboard exposure, and/or hands-on experience within the various occupational areas.
12002Office Procedures—Comprehensive Office Procedures—Comprehensive courses provide students with numerous opportunities to explore and understand the responsibilities and duties common to most office personnel. These comprehensive courses cover such topics as communication skills, project management, reception skills, technologies for distance communications, filing and record management, mail handling, scheduling meetings and conferences, creating itineraries, and word processing.
12003Office and Administrative Technologies Office and Administrative Technologies courses provide students with instruction and experience in developing technical, problem-solving, and decisionmaking skills essential for office and/or administrative occupations. Emphasis is placed on integrating and applying knowledge and skills to realistic office and administrative situations utilizing current and relevant technology.
12004Office Services Office Services courses introduce students to and help them refine their clerical and office assistant skills. Course content typically covers filing, telephone, and keyboarding skills; reprographic machinery and procedures; communications skills; and so on.
12005Keyboarding Keyboarding courses provide students with an introduction to the keyboard (letters, numbers, and symbols), basic machine operation, and proper keystroke technique. As students progress, they improve their speed and accuracy and produce increasingly complex documents. Such courses help students develop keyboard proficiency, document production skills, and problem-solving skills.
12006Word Processing Word Processing courses introduce students to automated document production using one or more software packages. These courses may introduce keyboarding techniques or may require prior experience. A parallel focus is placed on the use of software commands and functions to create, edit, format, and manipulate documents, capitalizing on the power offered by word processing software programs. These courses may also cover file and disk management and other computer-related skills.
12007Recordkeeping Recordkeeping courses help students develop knowledge and skills related to the principles and procedures involved in recording personal financial transactions as well as transactions typically undertaken by small businesses. Emphasis may be placed on software packages for accounting, database management, personal banking, budgeting, and income tax calculations. Additional emphasis is usually placed on cashier and clerk procedures, inventory control for small businesses, database management, merchandising, and payroll.
12008Particular Topics in Administration These courses examine specific topics related to business administration not otherwise described, such as a focus on dictation or office machinery, rather than provide a general study of office administration principles and techniques.
12009Business Communications Business Communications courses help students to develop an understanding and appreciation for effective communication in business situations and environments. Emphasis is placed on all phases of communication: speaking, listening, thinking, responding, reading, writing, communicating nonverbally, and utilizing technology for communication. Business communication functions, processes, and applications in the context of business may be practiced through problem-based projects and real world application.
12047Administration—Independent Study Administration—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore business administration-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
12048Administration—Workplace Experience Administration—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to business administration. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
12049Administration—Other Other Administration courses.
12051Introductory BusinessIntroductory Business courses survey an array of topics and concepts related to the field of business. These courses introduce business concepts such as banking and finance, the role of government in business, consumerism, credit, investment, and management. They usually provide a brief overview of the American economic system, small businesses, and corporate organizations. Introductory Business courses may also expose students to the varied opportunities in administration, accounting, management, and related fields.
12052Business Management Business Management courses acquaint students with management opportunities and effective human relations. These courses provide students with the skills to perform planning, staffing, financing, and controlling functions within a business. In addition, they usually provide a macro-level study of the business world, including business structure and finance, and the interconnections among industry, government, and the global economy. The course may also emphasize problem-based, real-world applications of business concepts and use accounting concepts to formulate, analyze, and evaluate business decisions.
12053Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship courses help students develop the knowledge and skills necessary to own and operate their own businesses. The course content typically covers topics from a number of fields: economics, marketing principles, human relations and psychology, business and labor law, legal rights and responsibilities of ownership, business and financial planning, finance and accounting, communication, information management, risk management, and strategic management. Several topics surveyed in Business Management courses may also be included.
12054Business Law Business Law courses emphasize legal concepts that are relevant to business and business organizations. Topics examined in these courses typically include contracts, buying/renting property, installment buying, insurance, buyer/seller relationships, negotiable instruments, employment, taxes, insurance, commercial papers, legal organizational structures, and consumer liabilities.
12055Business Principles and Management Business Principles and Management courses are designed to provide students with an understanding of the American business system, its organizations, and its management. These courses examine the various leadership and management styles of a variety of successful business organizations, large or small.
12056International Business and Marketing International Business and Marketing courses examine business management and administration in a global economy. Topics covered in this course typically include the principles and processes of export sales, trade controls, foreign operations and related problems, monetary issues, international business and policy, and applications of doing business in specific countries and markets.
12057Human Resources and Labor RelationsHuman Resources and Labor Relations courses focus on the managing of human resources essential to effective business operations. These courses cover such topics as the history of the labor movement in the United States, the nature of collective bargaining and conflict resolution in a unionized environment, and effective relationships between the employees of a business and the management.
12058Human Resources Management Human Resources Management courses provide students with an understanding of and skills in the effective use of leadership, management, communications, and interpersonal skills in achieving the goals of an organization.
12059IB Business Management IB Business Management courses prepare students to take the International Baccalaureate Business and Management exam at either the standard or higher level. IB Business Management courses explore business decisionmaking processes and their relationship to internal and external environments. Course content includes business organization and environment, human resources, accounts and finance, marketing, and operations management.
12060Business EthicsBusiness Ethics courses focus on the study of ethical principles and the application of those principles to situations relevant to decision making in the professional and business worlds.
12097Management—Independent Study Management—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore business management-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
12098Management—Workplace Experience Management—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to business management. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
12099Management—Other Other Management courses.
12101Banking and Finance Banking and Finance courses provide students with an overview of the American monetary and banking system as well as types of financial institutions and the services and products that they offer. Course content may include government regulations; checking, savings, and money market accounts; loans; investments; and negotiable instruments.
12102BankingBanking courses expose students to the American monetary and banking system. These courses may also address examining and applying the methods used for measuring the financial performance of banks in addition to examining specialized brokerage products, current issues, and future trends in banking.
12103Finance Finance courses are similar to Banking and Finance courses, but they focus specifically on finance, addressing how businesses raise, distribute, and use financial resources while managing risk. Course content typically involves modeling financial decisions (such as borrowing, selling equity or stock, lending or investing) typically undertaken by businesses.
12104AccountingAccounting courses introduce students to and expand their knowledge of the fundamental accounting principles and procedures used in businesses through integrating and using accounting-related software and information systems. Course content includes the recording and completion of the accounting cycle, payroll, taxes, debts, depreciation, and periodic adjustments through a computerized accounting program. Students may learn how to apply standard auditing principles and to prepare budgets and final reports. Calculators, electronic spreadsheets, or computer accounting software are usually used. Advanced topics may include principles of partnership and corporate accounting and the managerial uses of control systems and the accounting process.
12105Business Economics Business Economics courses integrate economic principles (such as free market economy, consumerism, and the role of American government within the economic system) with entrepreneurship/business concepts (such as marketing principles, business law, and risk).
12106Risk Management and InsuranceRisk Management and Insurance courses provide information about various risk management tools and techniques and may cover the perspective of insurance professionals and business owners. These courses may emphasize the specific uses, costs, and effectiveness of insurance products.
12107Securities and InvestmentsFormerly known as Investing, Securities and Investments courses emphasize the formulation of business and individual investment decisions by comparing and contrasting the investment qualities of cash, stock, bonds, and mutual funds. Students typically review annual reports, predict growth rates, and analyze trends. Stock market simulations are often incorporated into these courses.
12108Cost AccountingCost Accounting courses introduce students to the accounting concepts of manufacturing systems. In addition to job order and process costing systems, these courses emphasize profit planning and control programs.
12109Income Tax AccountingIncome Tax Accounting courses introduce students to and expand their knowledge of the fundamental accounting principles and procedures used in businesses through integrating and using accounting-related software and information systems. These courses focus on federal, state, and local business tax laws; business tax accounting methods; and the preparation of business tax forms.
12110Payroll AccountingPayroll Accounting courses introduce students to and expand their knowledge of the fundamental accounting principles and procedures related to payroll transactions for businesses. These courses typically emphasize computing wages, social security taxes, income tax withholding, unemployment taxes, and recording payroll transactions while providing students with experience in preparing all the necessary monthly, quarterly, and annual reports.
12111Particular Topics in AccountingThese courses examine particular topics, such as auditing or non-profit accounting, rather than provide a general overview.
12147Finance—Independent Study Finance—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore business finance-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
12148Finance—Workplace Experience Finance—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to finance. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
12149Finance—Other Other Finances courses.
12151Marketing Career ExplorationMarketing Career Exploration courses expose students to the opportunities available in retail, wholesale, advertising, and other occupational fields using marketing principles.
12152Marketing—ComprehensiveMarketing—Comprehensive courses focus on the wide range of factors that influence the flow of goods and services from the producer to the consumer. Topics may include, but are not limited to, market research, the purchasing process, distribution systems, warehouse and inventory control, salesmanship, sales promotions, shoplifting and theft control, business management, and entrepreneurship. Human relations, computers, and economics are sometimes covered as well.
12153Marketing—FashionMarketing—Fashion courses typically address basic knowledge of the apparel and accessories industry and the skills necessary for successful employment in apparel and accessory businesses. Students develop general marketing skills necessary for successful employment in fashion marketing, general marketing skills applicable to the apparel and accessories industry, and specialized skills unique to fashion marketing. Personal selling, sales promotion, purchasing, physical distribution, market planning, existing and emerging technology, and product/service management are usually included.
12154Marketing—Real Estate Marketing—Real Estate courses focus on the wide range of factors that influence the flow of goods and services from the producer to the consumer in the real estate industry. Topics may include purchasing, advertising, sales, human relations, management, and entrepreneurship but with particular attention to the real estate industry. Emphasis may be placed on financing, investment, ownership rights, ethics, and other real estate principles.
12155Marketing—Transportation Marketing—Transportation courses focus on the wide range of factors that influence the flow of goods and services from the producer to the consumer in the transportation industry. Topics may include purchasing and distribution systems, advertising, display and sales, management, and entrepreneurship with particular attention to the transportation industry. Emphasis may be placed on the identification and proper use of auto parts and accessories and the sales and service of new and used cars, vans, trucks, and related parts.
12156Marketing—Food/Beverage Industry Marketing—Food/Beverage Industry courses focus on the wide range of factors that influence the flow of goods and services from the producer to the consumer in the food and beverage industry. Topics may include purchasing and distribution systems, advertising, display and sales, management, and entrepreneurship. Emphasis may be placed on the unique characteristics and functions of the food and beverage service industry.
12157Marketing—Insurance Marketing—Insurance courses focus on the wide range of factors that influence the flow of goods and services from the producer to the consumer in the insurance industry. Topics may include purchasing and distribution systems, advertising, display and sales, management, and entrepreneurship. Emphasis may be placed on various categories of insurance including accident, health, life, marine, automobile, and causality insurance.
12158Marketing—FloristryMarketing—Floristry courses focus on the wide range of factors that influence the flow of goods and services from the producer to the consumer in the floral industry. Topics may include purchasing and distribution systems, advertising, display and sales, management, and entrepreneurship. Emphasis may be placed on the unique characteristics and functions of retail and wholesale floral operations.
12159Marketing—Hospitality/Tourism Marketing—Hospitality/Tourism courses focus on the wide range of factors that influence the flow of goods and services from the producer to the consumer in the travel, tourism, and lodging industries. Topics may include purchasing and distribution systems, advertising, display and sales, management, and entrepreneurship. Emphasis may be placed on the unique characteristics and functions of travel services and hotel/motel operations.
12160Marketing—MerchandisingMarketing—Merchandising courses address marketing in a retail/e-tail environment focusing on the buying and merchandising of products. Content includes, but is not limited to, marketing information management (including marketing research), market planning, channel management, sales, promotion, product/service management, and pricing.
12161Retail Marketing Retail Marketing courses cover marketing principles and concepts related to the provision of goods or services directly to the consumer, emphasizing store operation, advertisement and display of goods, store security, human relations, and business management and ownership.
12162Internet Marketing Internet Marketing covers the principles and functions of marketing from the standpoint of conducting business on the internet. Typically, students develop such skills as using the internet as a marketing tool, conducting a marketing analysis via the internet, planning marketing support activities, managing an electronic marketing campaign, managing/owning a business via the internet, and analyzing the impact of the internet on global marketing.
12163Sports and Entertainment Marketing Sports and Entertainment Marketing courses provide students with a thorough understanding of fundamental marketing and management concepts and theories as they relate to the sports and entertainment industries. Content may address promotion of sports/events, licensing, sponsorship and endorsements, branding, marketing research, product development, pricing and distribution strategies, sales, event planning, and the role of existing and emerging technologies. These courses may also encourage students to develop job skills and explore career options.
12164Principles of Marketing Principles of Marketing courses offer students insight into the processes affecting the flow of goods and services from the producer to the consumer. Course content ranges considerably as general marketing principles such as purchasing, distribution, and sales are covered; however, a major emphasis is often placed on kinds of markets; market identification; product planning, packaging, and pricing; and business management.
12165Principles of Advertising Principles of Advertising courses expose students to the varied concepts underlying the promotion of products. The topics included in Principles of Advertising courses range considerably, but typically include the psychology of advertising, a study of various media, advertising planning and budgeting, and advertising layout and design principles. Course topics may also include an overview of commercial art and packaging.
12166Marketing Management Marketing Management courses typically cover the same scope of topics as Marketing— Comprehensive courses (purchasing and distribution systems; advertising and sales; and so on) but place a particular emphasis on business management and entrepreneurship, providing exposure to common techniques and problems of management.
12167Marketing—Other Specialization Marketing—Other Specialization courses focus on the wide range of factors that influence the flow of goods and services from the producer to the consumer with attention to a particular industry not specified above. Topics may include purchasing and distribution systems, promotion, advertising, display and sales, financing, management, entrepreneurship, market research, pricing, global marketing, human relations, economics, and emerging technologies. These courses may also cover specific topics related to the particular industry being covered.
12168Marketing —CommoditiesMarketing —Commodities courses investigate the meaning and methods of marketing as related to agricultural commodities, products and services, and agricultural goods in domestic and international markets. Topics typically include appropriate market research; benefit/cost analysis of marketing; and methods of targeted agricultural marketing in domestic and international markets.
12169Social Media MarketingSocial Media Marketing courses address social media as a marketing tool and emphasize social media tools, social media messages, and search engine optimization. Topics may include, but are not limited to, marketing information management (including marketing research), market planning, channel management, sales, promotion, product/service management, and pricing.
12197Marketing—Independent Study Marketing—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore marketing-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
12198Marketing—Workplace Experience Marketing—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to marketing. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
12199Marketing—Other Other Marketing courses.
12201Cashier/Checker Operations Cashier/Checker Operations courses provide students with the knowledge and skills to operate a cash register and to handle numerous transactions. Topics typically include cash register procedures; handling cash, credit, checks, food stamps, and other forms of legal tender; human relations; stocking and marking merchandise; and theft prevention. Job search and employability skills are often an integral part of the course.
12202Principles of Selling Principles of Selling courses provide students with the knowledge and opportunity to develop in-depth sales competencies. Course content typically includes types of selling, steps in a sale, sales strategies, and interpersonal skills and techniques.
12247Sales—Independent Study Sales—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore sales-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
12248Sales—Workplace Experience Sales—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to sales. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
12249Sales—Other Other Sales courses.
12995Business and Marketing—Aide Business and Marketing—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
12997Business and Marketing—Independent Study Business and Marketing—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors or professionals as mentors, enable students to explore business or marketing-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
12998Business and Marketing—Workplace Experience Business and Marketing—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to business and marketing. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
12999Business and Marketing—Other Other Business and Marketing courses.
13001Exploration of Manufacturing OccupationsExploration of Manufacturing Occupations courses introduce and expose students to the career opportunities pertaining to the processing and production of goods. Course topics vary and may include (but are not limited to) systems pertinent to the manufacturing process, properties of various raw materials, and the methods used to transform materials into consumer products. Course activities depend upon the careers being explored; course topics may include entrepreneurship, labor laws, economic impact, and customer service.
13002Manufacturing—ComprehensiveManufacturing—Comprehensive courses introduce students to the various methods used to process and transform materials. Processing techniques covered usually include casting, forming, separating, assembling, and finishing. The courses may also include an overview of management techniques in planning, organizing, and controlling various segments of the manufacturing process, including design, automation, engineering, production, and marketing.
13003Industrial ArtsIndustrial Arts courses expose students to the tools and equipment that they may encounter in manufacturing-related occupations and enable them to develop the skills they need to use these tools in various applications. Course topics typically include (but are not limited to) planning and design, electricity and electronics, materials properties and testing, basic materials processing, and power technology. These courses typically cover general safety and career exploration as well.
13004Industrial Safety/First Aid Industrial Safety/First Aid courses immerse students in the study of safe operating procedures related to various industrial environments, as well as more general training in emergency first aid and CPR. Course topics may include the importance of standard operation procedures, appropriate use of equipment, agencies and regulations related to occupational safety and hazard prevention, and the dangers of particular materials.
13052Material and Processes Material and Processes courses expose students to the tools, equipment, and processes that may be encountered in manufacturing-related occupations. In particular, these courses stress the analysis, testing, and processing of metals, plastics, woods, ceramics, and composite materials.
13053Metal and Wood Processing/Production Metal and Wood Processing/Production courses allow students to study the physical and chemical properties of metals, woods, and composites and to use these materials to construct usable products according to industry standards. These courses enable students to experience the process of translating an idea into a finished product, with instruction in planning, designing, selecting materials, and using tools and machines.
13054Wood Processing/Production Wood Processing/Production courses allow students to study the physical and chemical properties of woods and composites made from woods and to use these materials to construct usable products according to industry standards. These courses enable students to experience the process of translating an idea into a finished product, with instruction in planning, designing, selecting materials, and using tools and machines.
13055Metal Processing/Production Metal Processing/Production courses allow students to study the physical and chemical properties of metals and metal alloys and to use these materials to construct usable products according to industry standards. These courses enable students to experience the process of translating an idea into a finished product, with instruction in planning, designing, selecting materials, and using tools and machines.
13056Plastics Processing/Production Plastics Processing/Production courses allow students to study the physical and chemical properties of plastics and composites and to use these materials to construct usable products according to industry standards. These courses enable students to experience the process of translating an idea into a finished product, with instruction in planning, designing, selecting materials, and using tools and machines.
13057Ceramic Processing/Production Ceramic Processing/Production courses allow students to study the physical and chemical properties of ceramics and heat-resistant composites and to use these materials to construct usable products according to industry standards. These courses enable students to experience the process of translating an idea into a finished product, with instruction in planning, designing, selecting materials, and using tools and machines.
13058Particular Topics in Processing and Production These courses examine specific topics in processing and production, such as substance analysis, other than those already described.
13097Processing/Production—Independent Study Processing/Production—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to processing and production. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
13098Processing/Production—Workplace Experience Processing/Production—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to manufacturing processing and production. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
13099Processing/Production—Other Other Processing/Production courses.
13101Production Systems Production Systems courses provide students with knowledge and skills related to manufacturing technologies from conception through production. Although courses vary, students typically analyze markets, design and develop prototypes, plan a marketing or sales strategy, manage a production plan, and manufacture useful products. These courses may also explore the evolution and impact of technology on society’s social, cultural, and economic systems and institutions.
13102Electro-Mechanical SystemsElectro-Mechanical Systems courses provide students with instruction and experience in components and equipment used within a manufacturing environment powered by electricity and physical forces. Students gain an understanding of basic and industrial electricity, industrial electronics, and the automated systems used in the manufacturing process or within manufactured goods.
13103Product DevelopmentProduct Development courses provide students with the opportunity to focus on one or more areas of industrial technology to design or redesign a product to solve a problem. Students may build prototypes and working models and may evaluate the product and process according to industry standards.
13147Production Systems—Independent Study Production Systems—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to manufacturing systems and/or research. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
13148Production Systems—Workplace Experience Production Systems—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to manufacturing systems and/or research. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
13149Production Systems—Other Other Production Systems courses.
13201Metalwork OccupationsMetalwork Occupations courses introduce and expose students to the theoretical principles and career opportunities pertaining to planning, manufacturing, assembling, testing, and repairing of parts, mechanisms, and structures in which materials are cast, formed, treated, cut, fused, or otherwise processed in some fashion.
13202Metalworking Metalworking courses introduce students to the physical and chemical properties of various metals and the tools and equipment used to manipulate metal and form it into products. Students will develop planning, layout, and measurement skills; gain experience in cutting, bending, forging, casting, and/or welding metal; complete projects according to blueprints or other specifications; and may also learn how to polish and finish metals. Correct use of metalworking tools and equipment is stressed.
13203Machining Machining courses enable students to design and manufacture metal parts using various machine tools and equipment. Course content may include interpreting specifications using blueprints; preparing and using manual and computer numerical controlled (CNC) lathes and milling machines, shapers, and grinders with skill, safety, and precision; maintenance; developing part specifications; and selecting appropriate materials. Advanced course topics may include quality control; statistical process control; and application of measurements, metalworking theory, and properties of materials. Courses may prepare students for industry certification.
13204Particular Topics in Machining These courses examine specific topics related to machining, emphasizing a particular type of machine, tool, or procedure, or concentrating on a particular application of machining techniques.
13205Sheet Metal Sheet Metal courses expose students to the skills and information necessary to lay out, fabricate, assemble, install, maintain, and repair items and structures created from sheet metal components. Students learn the safe and efficient operation of various tools and typically gain skill in blueprint reading, welding, and finishing and polishing metals.
13206Particular Topics in Sheet Metal In these courses students gain knowledge and skills in particular aspects of sheet metal. Examples include individual courses in radial line development, triangulation fabrication, and so on.
13207WeldingWelding courses enable students to gain knowledge of the physical and chemical properties, uses, and applications of various metals. Students gain skills in various processes used to join and cut metals (such as oxyacetylene, shielded metal, metal inert gas, and tungsten arc processes) and experience in identifying, selecting, and rating appropriate techniques. Students read and interpret blueprints in order to identify, select, and rate appropriate techniques. These courses may prepare students to pass relevant industry certifications.
13208Particular Topics in Welding In these courses students gain knowledge and skills in particular aspects of welding. Examples include individual courses in each of the following types of welding: gas metal, gas tungsten, and shielded metal and flux core arc welding.
13209Particular Topics in Metalwork In these courses students gain knowledge and skills in particular aspects of metalwork (such as foundry work or metallurgy) not otherwise described.
13247Metalwork—Independent Study Metalwork—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore metalwork-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
13248Metalwork—Workplace Experience Metalwork—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in the welding, machine technologies, or metalwork fields. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
13249Metalwork—Other Other Metalwork courses.
13301Appliance Repair Appliance Repair courses provide students with the knowledge and experience to repair, install, service, and inspect appliances such as stoves, refrigerators, washers, dryers, air conditioners, water heaters, and so on. Students gain an understanding of the mechanics and working systems of these appliances, the skills to read blueprints and specifications, and proficiency in using related tools and products.
13302Equipment Maintenance and Repair Equipment Maintenance and Repair courses prepare students to adjust, maintain, replace, and repair parts of machinery and to repair tools, equipment, and machines. The courses may have a general emphasis or may focus on a specific type of machinery or equipment related to a particular industry. Depending upon the intent, course topics may include electric, hydraulic, pneumatic, or mechanic systems; programmable logic and motor control devices, valves, and gates; or supplemental equipment such as fans, hoses, and pipes.
13303Industrial MaintenanceIndustrial Maintenance courses introduce students to the care and maintenance of a wide range of industrial equipment, including chain and gear drives, couplings, and fluid power equipment. Course topics may include lubricants and lubrication, the replacement of seals and bearings, and the correct application and selection of hand and power tools. Advanced courses may emphasize motor alignment using laser alignment, milling operations, turning operations, welding, technical drawings, and quality control.
13347Repair—Independent Study Repair—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics related to repair. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
13348Repair—Workplace Experience Repair—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in the fields involving repair, supported by classroom attendance and discussion. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
13349Repair—Other Other Repair courses.
13995Manufacturing—Aide Manufacturing—Aide courses offer interested students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
13997Manufacturing—Independent Study Manufacturing—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics related to manufacturing. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
13998Manufacturing—Workplace Experience Manufacturing—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields involving manufacturing, supported by classroom attendance and discussion. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
13999Manufacturing—Other Other Manufacturing courses.
14001Exploration of Health Care OccupationsExploration of Health Care Occupations courses expose students to the variety of opportunities available within the health care industry (e.g., nursing, therapy, dental care, administrative services, and lab technology). These courses provide experiences in several of these occupational clusters, along with information and knowledge related to the health care industry as a whole.
14002Health Care Occupations—Comprehensive Health Care Occupations—Comprehensive courses provide students with an orientation to the health care industry and help refine their health care-related knowledge and skills. Topics covered usually include (but are not limited to) an overview of health care delivery; patient care, including assessment of vital signs, body mechanics, and diet; anatomy and physiology; identification and use of medical equipment and supplies; medical terminology; hygiene and disease prevention; first aid and CPR procedures; laboratory procedures; and ethical and legal responsibilities.
14003Medical Law and EthicsMedical Law and Ethics courses introduce students to the principles of medical law, medical ethics, and bioethics. These courses emphasize the function of law and ethical issues as it applies to the medical environment.
14051Nursing Nursing courses place a special emphasis on the particular knowledge and skills required of nurses and/or nursing assistants and aides while covering general health care topics (i.e., patient care, anatomy and physiology, medical terminology, hygiene and disease prevention, first aid and CPR, and laboratory procedures). Topics covered typically include normal growth and development; bathing, feeding, dressing, and transporting patients; basic pharmacology; doctor, nurse, and patient relationships and roles; medical and professional ethics; death and dying; and care of various kinds of patients (e.g., chronically ill, children, new mothers, and so on).
14052Nursing—LPN Covering the same scope of topics as Nursing courses, Nursing—LPN courses delve into more depth in order to prepare students for the state’s practical nurse licensing examination. Nursing—LPN courses offer the knowledge and experience needed to provide nursing care for patients of all ages, in various stages of sickness or health, and with a variety of disease conditions. Additional topics covered may include community health, nutrition, drug therapy and administration, and mental illness.
14053Home Health Care Home Health Care courses teach students how to care for individuals within their homes. Course content relates health care practices and procedures to the home environment, and typically includes patient care, comfort, and safety; anatomy and physiology; the prevention of disease and infection; nutrition and meal preparation; human relations; and first aid and CPR. Topics covered may also include therapy strategies, household management, and employability.
14054Dental Science Dental Science courses expose students to the tools, terminology, and procedures necessary for a career in the dental industry. Course content covers a wide range of topics and typically includes dental anatomy and terminology; the identification and use of dental equipment; dental pathologies and procedures; asepsis; dental laboratory procedures; emergency first aid; and the ethical and legal responsibilities of dental care workers. These courses often explore dental specialties and career options.
14055Emergency Medical TechnologyEmergency Medical Technology courses place a special emphasis on the knowledge and skills needed in medical emergencies. Topics typically include clearing airway obstructions, controlling bleeding, bandaging, methods for lifting and transporting injured persons, simple spinal immobilization, infection control, stabilizing fractures, and responding to cardiac arrest. The courses may also cover the legal and ethical responsibilities involved in dealing with medical emergencies. These courses may prepare students to obtain certification in Emergency Medical Response (EMR), CPR, First Aid, Incident Command System (ICS), and Wilderness First Responder.
14056Surgical Technology Surgical Technology courses emphasize the care and needs of patients undergoing surgery while covering general health care topics (i.e., patient care, anatomy and physiology, medical terminology, hygiene and disease prevention, first aid and CPR, and laboratory procedures). In keeping with that focus, topics may include operation room materials, tools, and procedures; aseptic surgical techniques; preparation and handling of surgical instruments; efficiency in the operating room; and the roles of various medical personnel who are present during surgery.
14057Vision Care Vision Care courses expose students to the tools, terminology, and procedures necessary for a career in the optometric or optic field. Vision Care courses typically include the physics of light and refraction; the anatomy, physiology, and terminology associated with the eyes; identification and use of optometric and/or optical equipment; optical procedures; human relations; and the ethical and legal responsibilities of vision care workers.
14058Optometrics Optometrics courses provide students with the knowledge, ability, and experiences to prepare, assemble, and/or fit corrective lenses prescribed by a physician or optometrist. Topics covered may include layout and marking, cutting and chipping, edging and beveling, inspection, alignment, dispensing, and selection of eyewear.
14059Gerontology Gerontology courses provide students with knowledge and understanding of the processes of adult development and aging. Topics covered may include the study of the biological, economic, psychological, social, and health/fitness aspects of the aging process.
14060Physical Therapy Physical Therapy courses provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary to work with patients who need to achieve and maintain functional rehabilitation and to prevent malfunction or deformity. Topics covered typically include therapeutic exercises and activities (such as stretching and strengthening), how to train patients to perform the activities of daily living, the use of special equipment, and evaluation of patient progress.
14061Respiratory Therapy Respiratory Therapy courses provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary to work with patients who have breathing or other cardiopulmonary difficulties or disorders. Topics covered typically include identifying deficiencies and abnormalities of the cardiopulmonary system, understanding the various methods of therapies, and understanding how to use special equipment.
14062Sports MedicineFormerly known as Care of Athletes, Sports Medicine courses provide students with the knowledge and skills to understand and perform therapeutic tasks that would be designated by an athletic or fitness trainer. Topics covered may include taping and bandaging, proper use of protective padding, treatment modalities, anatomy and physiology, and medical terminology. Students may learn to measure cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, body composition, and blood pressure. More advanced topics may include injury assessment, the phases of healing, and the use of exercise and equipment to help in the reconditioning of injured athletes.
14063Particular Topics in Therapeutic Services These courses examine particular topics in medical therapeutic services other than those already described.
14097Therapeutic Services—Independent Study Therapeutic Services—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to therapeutic services. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
14098Therapeutic Services—Workplace Experience Therapeutic Services—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to therapeutic services. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
14099Therapeutic Services—Other Other Therapeutic Services courses.
14101Dental Laboratory Technology Dental Laboratory Technology courses expose students to the principals, tools, terminology, and procedures necessary for a career in a dental laboratory. These courses typically cover many of the same topics as Dental Science, but emphasize making mouth guards, taking impressions, creating various types of dental molds and models, and fabricating prostheses and dental appliances.
14102Medical Lab Technology Medical Lab Technology courses provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary for employment in health care-related laboratories. Topics include basic principles of anatomy and physiology, relevant concepts in microbiology and chemistry, and laboratory techniques (including preparation and analysis of various cultures and specimens). The courses may also cover such components as venipuncture, EKG, and CPR procedures.
14103EKG Technology In EKG Technology courses, students acquire the knowledge and skills to perform electrocardiograph activities and learn about the cardiovascular system (including its function, diseases, and rhythms); EKG machinery; and the use of drugs and their effects. These courses usually include general health care topics as well, such as basic anatomy and physiology, patient care, first aid and CPR, identification and use of medical equipment, and medical terminology.
14104PhlebotomyIn Phlebotomy courses, students acquire knowledge, skills, and experiences related to the drawing of blood and typically learn about such topics as infection control, sterilization practices, medical/hospital procedures and environments, diagnostic procedures, proper storage and handling of specimens, and the process of drawing blood.
14105Particular Topics in Diagnostic Services These courses examine particular topics in diagnostic services other than those already described.
14147Diagnostic Services—Independent Study Diagnostic Services—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics related to diagnostic services. Independent Study courses may provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
14148Diagnostic Services—Workplace Experience Diagnostic Services—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to diagnostic services. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
14149Diagnostic Services—Other Other Diagnostic Services courses.
14151Medical/Clerical Assisting Medical/Clerical Assisting courses enable students to develop knowledge and skills that combine the medical and clerical fields. Students typically develop skills such as patient exam preparation, assessment of vital signs, routine lab procedures, medical transcription, financial accounting, patient and insurance company billing, and record-keeping.
14152Pharmacy Assisting Pharmacy Assisting courses emphasize the knowledge and skills necessary to assist a pharmacist or pharmacy technician. Course topics and experiences enable students to understand medical terminology, keep and maintain records, label medications, perform computer patient billing, perform stock inventory, and order supplies. These courses also emphasize pharmaceutical classification, drug interactions, and interpersonal/communication skills.
14153Medical Office Procedures Medical Office Procedures courses expose students to clerical knowledge, abilities, and procedures as they apply to the medical field. These courses typically include (but are not limited to) topics such as medical transcription, medical insurance, financial accounting, scheduling, and patient record-keeping. Medical terminology and routine medical procedures are covered to provide a context for clerical duties.
14154Medical Terminology In Medical Terminology courses, students learn how to identify medical terms by analyzing their components. These courses emphasize defining medical prefixes, root words, suffixes, and abbreviations. The primary focus is on developing both oral and written skills in the language used to communicate within health care professions.
14155Particular Topics in Health Information These courses examine particular topics in health Information other than those already described.
14156Medical Coding and TranscriptionMedical Coding and Transcription courses introduce students to the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification and its system of hospital codes for diagnoses and procedures. These courses provide opportunities for students to practice and develop skills in the use of transcription equipment and to gain familiarity with common formats of medical terminology and reports.
14157Health Informatics and Data ManagementHealth Informatics and Data Management courses introduce students to automated information systems in the health care delivery system. These courses teach students terminology and essential concepts of health information systems and management of data, including the purpose, content, and structure of health data; numbering and filing systems; storage and retention methods; and the construction and design of forms, records, indexes, and registers. These courses may also examine data integrity, privacy/security issues, and the purposes of accreditation and regulatory standards in developing health record practice guidelines.
14197Health Information—Independent Study Health Information—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics related to health information systems. Independent Study courses may provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
14198Health Information—Workplace Experience Health Information—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to health Information. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
14199Health Information—Other Other Health Information courses.
14201Central Service Technology Central Service Technology courses provide students with knowledge and skills related to the procurement, handling, storage, and distribution of sterile goods and equipment. Course components usually include quality assurance, infection control and isolation techniques, medical terminology and processes, decontamination and sterilization, microbiology, and chemistry.
14202Health Support Services Health Support Services courses provide students with knowledge and skills to be used in activities that support patients’ primary health care, such as counseling, health education, disease management, and risk reduction. Because support services can be widely defined, course topics typically also include general health care, such as anatomy and physiology, medical terminology, first aid and CPR procedures, and ethical and legal responsibilities.
14203Health Unit Coordination Health Unit Coordination courses provide students with instruction and experiences so that they can manage components of nonpatient care activities in health care facilities. Topics covered usually include medical terminology, transcription, and general reception duties and responsibilities; recordkeeping; and stocking medical and office supplies and equipment.
14204Particular Topics in Support Services These courses examine particular topics in health support services other than those described.
14247Health Support Services—Independent Study Health Support Services—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics related to health support services. Independent Study courses may provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
14248Health Support Services—Workplace Experience Health Support Services—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in careers related to health support services. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
14249Health Support Services—Other Other Health Support Services courses.
14251Health Science Health Science courses integrate chemistry, microbiology, chemical reactions, disease processes, growth and development, and genetics with anatomy and physiology of the body systems. Typically, these courses reinforce science, mathematics, communications, health, and social studies principles and relate them to health care.
14252Biotechnology Biotechnology courses involve the study of the bioprocesses of organisms, cells, and/or their components and enable students to use this knowledge to produce or refine products, procedures, and techniques. Course topics typically include laboratory measurement, monitoring, and calculation; growth and reproduction; chemistry and biology of living systems; quantitative problem-solving; data acquisition and display; and ethics. Advanced topics may include elements of biochemistry, genetics, and protein purification techniques.
14253Pharmacology Pharmacology courses involve a study of how living animals can be changed by chemical substances, especially by the actions of drugs and other substances used to treat disease. Basic concepts of physiology, pathology, biochemistry, and bacteriology are typically brought into play as students examine the effects of drugs and their mechanisms of action.
14254Particular Topics in Health Sciences These courses examine particular topics in health sciences other than those already described.
14255Biomedical InnovationBiomedical Innovation courses help students apply their knowledge and skills to answer questions or solve problems related to the biomedical sciences. These courses help students design innovative solutions for emerging health challenges and address topics such as clinical medicine, human physiology, medical innovation, water contamination, public health, molecular biology, and forensic autopsy, and public health. These courses may also provide students with the opportunity to work with a mentor or advisor from a university or hospital, physician’s office, or industry. Students may design and complete an independent project as part of the course.
14297Health Sciences—Independent Study Health Sciences—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore health-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
14298Health Sciences—Workplace Experience Health Sciences—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields involving the health sciences. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
14299Health Sciences—Other Other Health Sciences courses.
14995Health Care Sciences—Aide Health Care Sciences—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
14997Health Care Sciences—Independent Study Health Care Sciences—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore health-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular specialization, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
14998Health Care Sciences—Workplace Experience Health Care Sciences—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in the health care industry. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
14999Health Care Sciences—Other Other Health Care Sciences courses.
15001Exploration of Public Service CareersExploration of Public Service Careers courses expose students to the duties, responsibilities, requirements, and career opportunities within public service. Course topics vary and may include, but are not limited to, public safety, police, fire, emergency services, law, forensics, corrections, fire/EMS and homeland security issues. Course activities depend upon the career clusters that students explore.
15051Criminal JusticeCriminal Justice courses train students to understand and apply the principles and procedures essential to the overall U.S. criminal justice system. Course topics vary and may include, but are not limited to, structure, history and philosophy of the federal, state, county, and municipal court systems; judicial appointment processes; arrest-to-sentencing sequences; laboratory, forensic, and trial procedure; probation and parole; state and federal correctional facilities; and system interrelationships with law enforcement agencies.
15052CorrectionsCorrections courses provide instruction regarding the principles and techniques used by institutions that incarcerate, rehabilitate, and monitor people accused or convicted of crimes. As applicable, students may prepare for certification as a corrections officer or deputy. Course topics vary and may include, but are not limited to, infection control in corrections, taking fingerprints, self-defense pressure points, organization of correctional systems, and current and future issues in corrections.
15053Particular Topics in Law EnforcementThese courses examine specific topics related to law enforcement (such as juvenile justice), rather than provide a general study of the field.
15054Law EnforcementLaw Enforcement courses provide an overview of the history, organization, and functions of local, state, and federal law enforcement and foundational skills necessary to fulfill law enforcement duties. Course topics vary and may include, but are not limited to, the role of constitutional law, the United States legal system, criminal law, law enforcement terminology, physical fitness, self-defense, and skill necessary to fulfill law enforcement duties. Advanced courses may explore specific types of crimes, ethical and legal responsibilities, crime scene investigations, emergency medical procedures, use of force, and prisoner transport.
15055Forensic ScienceForensic Science courses provide an overview of the theoretical understanding and practical application of forensic science techniques. These courses explore the applied science and the fields of biology, chemistry, physics, and crime science investigation. Topics typically covered may include genetics, anthropology, toxicology, entomology, ballistics, pathology, computer forensics, fire debris and trace evidence among others.
15056Crime Scene ManagementCrime Scene Management courses provide the skills and knowledge necessary for criminalistics - the securing, investigating, and processing of a crime scene. Topics may include, but are not limited to, evidence collection and preservation, finger printing, sketching, securing and photographing the crime scene, and chain of custody.
15057Criminal Law and ProceduresCriminal Law and Procedures courses provide students with knowledge and skills related to understanding criminal law, constitutional amendments, and due process. Course content may include specific types of crimes, such as vehicle crimes, personal crimes, cyber crimes, drug crimes, and crimes related to child pornography or pedophiles.
15058Ethics in Criminal JusticeEthics in Criminal Justice courses cover ethical standards and codes of professional behavior for police officers and others placed in positions of public trust. Topics may include use of force, gratuities, intra- and inter-agency conduct, integrity, ethical necessity of due process, and on-duty and off-duty conduct.
15097Law Enforcement—Independent Study Law Enforcement—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to law enforcement. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
15098Law Enforcement—Workplace Experience Law Enforcement—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to law enforcement. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
15099Law Enforcement—Other Other Law Enforcement courses.
15101Public Safety Public Safety courses introduce students to the field of public safety and extend their knowledge and skills pertaining to the safety and security of homes, workplaces, and the community. These courses cover such topics as policing, law enforcement, emergency service, and private security and corrections and may cover all or a subset of these services.
15102Security ServicesSecurity Services courses provide instruction regarding the safety and security of (1) people, (2) personal property, (3) intellectual property, and (4) buildings and facilities.
15103Particular Topics in Security These courses examine specific topics related to security and protective services, rather than provide a general study.
15104Public Safety TelecommunicationsPublic Safety Telecommunications courses provide students with the skills and knowledge necessary to obtain national certification in Public Safety Telecommunications and/or employment as a 911 telecommunicator. Course content may include, but is not limited to, understanding standard federal, state, and local telecommunication operating procedures; functions, terminology, and types of telecommunication equipment; malfunctions and maintenance agreements; proper and correct telephone and dispatching procedures and techniques; emergency situations and operating procedures; and emergency medical dispatch procedures.
15147Security and Protection—Independent Study Security and Protection—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related the security and protection of the public. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
15148Security and Protection—Workplace Experience Security and Protection—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to security and protection. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
15149Security and Protection—Other Other Security and Protection courses.
15151Fire Science Fire Science courses introduce students to the field of fire prevention and control and enable them to extend their knowledge through the use of chemical, physical, and engineering principles to understand factors involved in fires. Course topics typically include the chemistry of combustion, factors that influence fire (such as structural design and meteorology), and safety procedures.
15152Fire Fighting Fire Fighting courses offer students the opportunity to learn fire prevention and control under controlled conditions. Typically, students learn about the organization, rules, requirements, and regulations of fire departments; study and practice the tools and techniques used by firefighters to control or extinguish fires; and examine the behavior of fires. These courses also usually include emergency medical procedures and present fire investigation techniques.
15153Particular Topics in Fire Management These courses examine specific topics related to fire management (such as hazardous materials handling), rather than provide a general study of the field.
15197Fire Management—Independent Study Fire Management—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related fire management. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
15198Fire Management—Workplace Experience Fire Management—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to fire management. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
15199Fire Management—Other Other Fire Management courses.
15201Public AdministrationPublic Administration courses provide an overview of the structure, roles, and duties of public governments and associated agencies. These courses explore the foundation and evolution of the public service sector, issues related to the provision of services by governmental bodies, and the missions and constraints of various departments within local and state, and the federal government. In addition, students may explore a particular public administration topic (such as the tax base and structure, the legislative process, selection of public servants, resource management, and so on) in greater detail.
15202Community ProtectionCommunity Protection courses provide students with information regarding the personnel and agencies concerned with protection of the home, city, state, and nation. Topics covered typically include civil defense; homeland security; disaster, terrorism, and emergency preparedness; crime prevention; pollution control; fire prevention and control; legal and social systems and principles; and public health.
15203Public Policy Public Policy courses provide students with the opportunity to design, propose, and analyze programs and policies implemented by government agencies. Activities typically include identifying social issues and problems, generating recommendations, using data to quantify the extent of a problem or evaluate its solution, communicating ideas and findings, and understanding decisionmaking processes.
15247Government Service—Independent Study Government Service—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related the provision of government services. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
15248Government Service—Workplace Experience Government Service—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to government service. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
15249Government Service—Other Other Government Service courses.
15995Public, Protective, and Government Service—Aide Public, Protective, and Government Service—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
15997Public, Protective, and Government Service—Independent Study Public, Protective, and Government Service—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to public, protective, and government service. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
15998Public, Protective, and Government Service—Workplace Experience Public, Protective, and Government Service—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to public, protective, and/or government service. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
15999Public, Protective, and Government Service—Other Other Public, Protective, and Government Service courses.
16001Exploration of Hospitality Careers Exploration of Hospitality Careers courses survey a wide array of topics while exposing students to the variety of career opportunities in hospitality fields (such as food service, lodging, tourism, and recreation). These courses serve to introduce students to the general field of hospitality, providing an opportunity to identify a focus for continued study.
16051Exploration of Restaurant, Food and Beverage Services Exploration of Restaurant, Food, and Beverage Services courses provide students with an overview of the restaurant, food, and beverage service industry. Topics covered include industry terminology, the history of restaurant, food, and beverage services, introduction to marketing, and the various careers available in the industry.
16052Restaurant, Food and Beverage Services—ComprehensiveRestaurant, Food, and Beverage Services—Comprehensive courses provide students with knowledge and skills related to commercial and institutional food service establishments. Course topics range widely, but usually include sanitation and safety procedures, nutrition and dietary guidelines, food preparation (and quantity food production), and meal planning and presentation. Restaurant, Food, and Beverage Service courses may include both “back-of-the-house” and “front-of-the-house” experiences, and may therefore also cover reservation systems, customer service, and restaurant/business management.
16053Food ServiceFood Service courses provide students with instruction regarding nutrition, principles of healthy eating, and the preparation of food. Among the topics covered are large-scale meal preparation, preserving nutrients throughout the food preparation process, use and care of commercial cooking equipment, food storage, advances in food technology, safety, sanitation, management, production, service skills, menu planning, the operation of institutional food establishments and the careers available in the food service industry.
16054Nutrition and Food PreparationNutrition and Food Preparation courses provide students with knowledge and skills about commercial food preparation and/or production, with a strong emphasis on nutrition, balanced diets, and satisfying special dietary needs. Topics typically include assessing nutrient content, the science of food and nutrition, physiology and utilization of nutrients. Course content may also cover additives, contaminants, food- borne illnesses, and food technology.
16055Restaurant Management and Operations Restaurant Management and Operations courses provide students with knowledge and skills related to commercial and institutional food service establishments, with an emphasis on management. Course topics therefore include guest service and relationships, planning, resource management, and other topics related to managing and operating restaurants.
16056Culinary Art SpecialtyCulinary Art Specialty courses provide instruction in a particular type of cooking or culinary style. Examples of such specialty fields include baking, creating and decorating wedding cakes, Middle Eastern cuisine, and so on. These courses emphasize skills specific to the type of culinary art being studied.
16057Particular Topics in Restaurant, Food and Beverage ServicesThese courses examine specific topics related to Restaurant, Food, and Beverage Services, such as catering, rather than provide a general study of the industry or of specific topics already described.
16097Restaurant, Food and Beverage Services—Independent Study Restaurant, Food, and Beverage Services—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest within the restaurant, food, and beverage services industry. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
16098Restaurant, Food and Beverage Services—Workplace Experience Restaurant, Food, and Beverage Services—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to restaurant, food, and beverage services. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
16099Restaurant, Food and Beverage Services—Other Other Restaurant, Food and Beverage Service courses.
16101Exploration of Lodging Careers Exploration of Lodging Careers courses provide an overview of the lodging industry. Topics covered include lodging terminology, the history of lodging, introduction to marketing, and the various careers available in the lodging industry.
16102Lodging—Comprehensive Lodging—Comprehensive courses introduce students to the lodging industry and refine their related knowledge and skills. Topics covered typically include property management, guest psychology and relationships, lodging operations, food and beverage services, and other topics related to support services within the lodging industry.
16103Institutional Maintenance Institutional Maintenance courses present the knowledge and skills required for service work within institutions. Topics covered typically include housekeeping and laundry services, care and cleaning of facilities, and safety and sanitation procedures, in addition to career opportunities, business responsibilities, and other types of ongoing maintenance.
16104Particular Topics in Lodging These courses examine specific topics in lodging such as convention planning or hotel management rather than provide a general study of the industry or of specific topics already described.
16147Lodging—Independent Study Lodging—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest within the lodging industry. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
16148Lodging—Workplace Experience Lodging—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to lodging. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
16149Lodging—Other Other Lodging courses.
16151Introduction to Travel and Tourism Introduction to Travel and Tourism courses provide an overview of the travel and tourism industry. Topics covered in this course may include travel and tourism terminology, the history of travel, introduction to marketing, and the various careers available in travel and tourism.
16152Travel and Tourism—Comprehensive Travel and Tourism—Comprehensive courses provide the knowledge and skills necessary to work in the travel industry such as sales techniques, marketing principles, and entrepreneurial skills. Additional skills learned in these courses typically include travel agency procedures, airline reservation systems, public relations, hotel/motel registration systems and services, and conference and convention planning.
16153World Travel and TourismWorld Travel and Tourism courses provide the knowledge and skills necessary to work in the travel industry, with a focus on travel outside of the United States. Topics covered may include geography of the continents; customs, cultures, and tourist destinations in other countries; special documentation needed for international travel; and planning events to client specifications.
16154Eco-tourism Eco-tourism courses provide the knowledge and skills necessary to work in the travel industry, with particular attention paid to conservation and environmental issues surrounding travel and tourism. Topics covered may include recreational opportunities related to on- and off-site attractions and environmental and ecological principles.
16155Particular Topics in Travel and Tourism These courses examine specific topics in travel and tourism such as the airline reservation and ticketing system rather than provide a general study of the industry or of specific topics already described.
16197Travel and Tourism—Independent Study Travel and Tourism—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest within the travel and tourism industry. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
16198Travel and Tourism—Workplace Experience Travel and Tourism—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to travel and tourism. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
16199Travel and Tourism—Other Other Travel and Tourism courses.
16201Exploration of Recreation, Amusement and Attractions Exploration of Recreation, Amusement, and Attractions courses provide an overview of the recreation industry. Topics covered in this course may include industry terminology; the history of recreation, amusement, and attractions; introduction to marketing; and the various careers available in the industry.
16202Recreation, Amusement and Attractions—ComprehensiveRecreation, Amusement, and Attractions—Comprehensive courses provide students with the attitudes, skills, and knowledge needed for employment in theme parks, attractions and outdoor recreation facilities, exhibitions, and event planning. Topics covered may include planning trade shows, fairs, and conferences; outdoor recreation and management; financial transactions; salesmanship; guest services and satisfaction; culture and customs; computer and industry technology; eco-tourism; client information; and planning specialized events while incorporating themes, timelines, budgets, target audiences, agendas, and public relations.
16203Particular Topics in Recreation, Amusement and Attractions These courses examine specific topics in recreation, amusement, and attractions such as local opportunities rather than provide a general study of the industry.
16204Recreation, Amusement, and Attractions ManagementRecreation, Amusement, and Attractions Management courses teach students about the development and management of recreational areas and parks and cover the economic and environmental impact of tourism. These courses may also emphasize career skills relative to the outdoor parks, recreation, and tourism industries.
16247Recreation, Amusement and Attractions—Independent Study Recreation, Amusement, and Attractions—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest within the recreation, amusement, and attractions industry. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
16248Recreation, Amusement and Attractions—Workplace Experience Recreation, Amusement, and Attractions—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to recreation, amusement, and attractions. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
16249Recreation, Amusement and Attractions—Other Other Recreation, Amusement and Attractions courses.
16995Hospitality and Tourism—Aide Hospitality and Tourism—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
16997Hospitality and Tourism—Independent Study Hospitality and Tourism—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest within the hospitality and tourism industry. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
16998Hospitality and Tourism—Workplace Experience Hospitality and Tourism—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to hospitality and tourism. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
16999Hospitality and Tourism—Other Other Hospitality and Tourism courses.
17001Construction Careers ExplorationConstruction Careers Exploration courses expose students to the opportunities available in the architecture and construction industry, including occupations such as carpenter, electrician, plumber, heating/air conditioning technician, safety supervisor, architect, engineer, and other occupations. Students learn about the processes involved in construction projects and may engage in a variety of small projects. These courses emphasize responsibilities, qualifications, work environment, rewards, and career paths within construction-related fields.
17002Construction—Comprehensive Construction—Comprehensive courses provide students with basic knowledge and skills required for construction of commercial, residential, and institutional structures. These courses provide experiences and information (typically including career opportunities and training requirements) regarding construction-related occupations such as carpentry, cabinetmaking, bricklaying, electrical trades, plumbing, concrete masonry, and so on. Students engage in activities such as reading blueprints, preparing building sites, starting foundations, erecting structures, installing utilities, finishing surfaces, and providing maintenance.
17003Carpentry Carpentry courses provide information related to the building of wooden structures, enabling students to gain an understanding of wood grades and construction methods and to learn skills such as laying sills and joists; erecting sills and rafters; applying sheathing, siding, and shingles; setting door jambs; and hanging doors. Carpentry courses may teach skills for rough construction, finish work, or both. Students learn to read blueprints, draft, use tools and machines properly and safely, erect buildings from construction lumber, perform finish work inside of buildings, and do limited cabinet work. Carpentry courses may also include career exploration, good work habits, and employability skills.
17004Framing Carpentry Framing Carpentry courses provide students with much of the same knowledge as general carpentry courses (knowledge of various types and grades of woods, proper and safe use of hand and power tools, and site selection and preparation), but place a special emphasis on construction methods applicable to floor, wall, roof, and/or stair framing. Course content may also include insulation installation and painting.
17005Particular Topics in Carpentry These courses cover specific aspects of building construction or carpentry. All coursework focuses upon a particular skill or set of skills related to one subtopic, such as floor framing, wall and partition framing, interior finishing, or exterior finishing.
17006Woodworking Woodworking courses introduce students to the various kinds of woods used in industry and offer experience in using selected woodworking tools. Students design and construct one or more projects and may prepare a bill of materials. Correct and safe use of tools and equipment is emphasized. As students advance, they focus on learning the terminology necessary to use power tools successfully, developing skills to safely use these tools in the workshop and becoming familiar with various kinds of wood-finishing materials. Advanced students typically design a project, prepare bills of materials, construct, and finish proposed projects.
17007Cabinetmaking Cabinetmaking courses provide students with experience in constructing cases, cabinets, counters, and other interior woodwork. Students learn to distinguish between various types of furniture construction and their appropriate applications, and how to use various woodworking machines and power tools for cutting and shaping wood. Cabinetmaking courses cover the different methods of joining pieces of wood, how to use mechanical fasteners, and how to attach hardware. Initial topics may resemble those taught in Woodworking courses; more advanced topics may include how to install plastic laminates on surfaces and how to apply spray finishes.
17008Masonry Masonry courses enable students to learn to construct interior and exterior walls, columns, doorways, window openings, fireplaces, chimneys, and foundations from brick and concrete block. Along with other activities, students may mix and spread cement and mortar, read blueprints and plans, and estimate materials needed for a project. Other topics may also include how to layout buildings on footings and how to establish grades using a surveying transit.
17009Building Repair and MaintenanceFormerly known as Building Maintenance, Building Repair and Maintenance courses train students to maintain commercial, industrial, and residential buildings and homes. Instruction is provided in the basic maintenance and repair of air conditioning, heating, plumbing, electrical, and other mechanical systems. Topics covered may include identifying and using hand and power tools safely; installing and repairing floor coverings, walls, and ceilings; installing and repairing doors, windows, screens, and cabinets; applying finishes to prepared surfaces; and repairing roofs, masonry, plumbing, and electrical systems.
17010Home Maintenance Home Maintenance courses provide students with knowledge and skills related to devices and systems found in the home. Course content may include electrical wiring, plumbing, window and door repair and installation, wall and floor repair and finishing, furniture repair and finishing, and small appliance repair.
17011Wall Finishings Wall Finishings courses prepare students to finish exterior or interior surfaces by applying protective coating materials such as paint, lacquer, wallpaper, plaster, or stucco. Course topics may include instruction in making, mixing, and matching paint colors; applying coating with various types of equipment; applying wallpaper; lathing, preparing surfaces, smoothing, and finishing.
17012Upholstering Upholstering courses prepare students in all aspects of upholstering furniture. Topics covered may include installing, repairing, arranging, and securing the springs, filler, padding and cover materials of chairs, couches and mattresses; cutting, sewing and trimming; cushion filling, tufting, and buttoning; and wood refinishing.
17013Commercial ConstructionCommercial Construction courses focus on residential construction principles and their relationship to commercial applications. Topics typically covered include commercial concrete forming, reinforcement and placement methods, stair construction, metal framing, interior finishes, suspended ceiling systems, metal framing and drywall applications, and commercial roofing methods and systems. These courses may also address equipment and tool usage in commercial construction.
17014Concrete FoundationsConcrete Foundations courses cover concrete and its relationship to construction and concrete safety and testing techniques.
17015Construction EstimatingConstruction Estimating courses provide students with the opportunity to learn the fundamental principles of construction estimating. Course topics typically include procedures for estimating costs in different divisions of a project and determining the critical quantities of materials obtained from a set of plans.
17016Construction ManagementConstruction Management courses introduce students to the concept of the project team, use of documents on a construction site, submittals, shop drawings, jobsite layout, meeting control, safety management, changes and claims forms, documents, and project closeout record keeping. Topics may also include construction law, construction contracts, and how to work with owners and subcontractors.
17017Particular Topics in ConstructionThese courses provide students with specialized knowledge and help them develop skills in particular topics concerning the processes, responsibilities, and occupations of the construction industry.
17047General Construction—Independent Study General Construction—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore construction-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
17048General Construction—Workplace Experience General Construction—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to construction. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
17049General Construction—Other Other General Construction courses.
17051Air ConditioningAir Conditioning courses offer students specialized training related to the design, installation, and repair of air conditioning systems for residential and commercial use. These courses may emphasize the theory and design of electrical, electronic, mechanical, and pneumatic control systems used in air conditioning systems. They might also (or instead) focus on procedures used in troubleshooting, servicing, and installing electric, gas, and ground source components of air conditioning systems.
17052Refrigeration Refrigeration courses provide students with exposure to and training in the theories, equipment, and skills needed to design, install, and repair commercial and residential refrigeration systems. Course topics typically include the theory of thermodynamics, measurement of pressures and temperatures, components and common accessories of refrigeration systems, and repair and safety procedures.
17053HeatingHeating courses offer students training specific to the design, installation, and repair of heating systems for residential use. Topics typically include electric, gas, steam, and ground-source systems; ventilation procedures; safety practices; and installation and trouble-shooting techniques.
17054Air Conditioning/Refrigeration Air Conditioning/Refrigeration courses enable students to develop the combined skills and knowledge to install, maintain, adjust, and repair both air conditioning and refrigeration systems.
17055Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration In Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration courses, students learn the basic principles of these systems, along with how to identify and safely use tools/equipment used in the trade.
17056Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning These courses synthesize basic and advanced principles in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning and include topics such as air filtration methods, humidity control, and the installation and maintenance of heat pumps, furnaces, and air conditioners. Students also learn about climate control systems; electrical wiring; systems design; sizing, fabricating, and installing ductwork; installing and maintaining climate control systems; and safety.
17057Particular Topics in HVACR These courses offer students specialized training in aspects or topics that are common to various climate control systems (heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration systems); such topics may include electrical components, diagrams and blueprints, welding and soldering techniques, and so on.
17058Plumbing Plumbing courses provide students with instruction in installing waste and vent systems, water and gas pipes, trim, and fixtures. Skills taught include cutting and joining various types of pipe (for instance, steel, plastic) using various methods (cement, seat method, and so on).
17059Plumbing and Heating Plumbing and Heating courses address the installation, assembly, maintenance, and repair of piping, plumbing, heating equipment, and water and drainage systems. Topics covered include the computation of heat losses and BTU requirements and blueprint reading. Students gain experience with electric, gas, and oil furnaces; vacuum pumps; air compressors; and mechanical and pneumatic testing equipment.
17097Air Conditioning, Heating and Plumbing—Independent Study Air Conditioning, Heating, and Plumbing—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to air conditioning, heating and plumbing. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
17098Air Conditioning, Heating and Plumbing—Workplace Experience Air Conditioning, Heating, and Plumbing—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to air conditioning, heating, and/or plumbing. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
17099Air Conditioning, Heating and Plumbing—Other Other Air Conditioning, Heating and Plumbing courses.
17101Exploration of Electricity/Electronics Exploration of Electricity/Electronics courses offer instruction in the theory of electricity and in the terminology, skills, and safety procedures common to careers involving electricity and electronics. Topics include (but are not limited to) Ohm’s law, electrical equipment, wire systems, and so on; career exploration is often (but not always) an integral part of these courses.
17102Electricity—Comprehensive Electricity—Comprehensive courses provide a survey of the theory, terminology, equipment, and practical experience in the skills needed for careers in the electrical field. These courses typically include AC and DC circuitry, safety, and the National Electrical Code and may cover such skills as those involved in building circuits; wiring residential, commercial, and/or industrial buildings; installing lighting, power circuits, and cables; and estimating job costs. As students progress, their projects become more complex and expansive. In these courses, safety is stressed, and a career exploration component may be offered.
17103Residential Wiring Covering many of the same topics as Electricity—Comprehensive courses, Residential Wiring courses apply the knowledge and skills that students acquire to the electrical systems found in family dwellings. Because these courses emphasize residential electricity, topics may also include cable installation, telephone systems, and the installation of lighting fixtures, outlets, and so on. Maintenance and repair skills are often included as course topics.
17104Industrial Electricity Covering many of the same topics as Electricity—Comprehensive courses, Industrial Electricity courses apply the knowledge and skills that students acquire to the electrical systems used in industry. Because of this emphasis, these courses may also cover the installation of transformers and control devices, emergency generator systems, and other industrial applications.
17105Particular Topics in Electricity These courses provide students with specialized knowledge and help them develop skills in particular topics concerning the nature, behavior, and application of electrical current.
17106Electronics—Comprehensive Electronics—Comprehensive courses provide a survey of the theory, terminology, equipment, and practical experience in the skills needed for careers in the electronic field as well as typically cover the theory of electricity. Course topics may include AC, DC, analog, and integrated circuitry and solid state and digital devices, amplifiers, and semiconductors. Skills covered may involve the repair, maintenance, and building of electronic equipment such as radios, television sets, and industrial equipment.
17107Particular Topics in Electronics Individual courses in this category offer specialized training in topics related to electronics such as diodes, transistors, digital techniques, solid-state devices, analog circuits, and microprocessors.
17108Electricity/Electronics—General Electricity/Electronics—General courses teach fundamental concepts of electricity and electronics, including safety procedures, and may introduce students to the available occupations in electrical and electronic industries. Topics covered typically include components of circuits; reading schematics and diagrams; electricity and electronics as sources of energy; signal transmission; and using equipment common to these occupations, such as ammeters, voltmeters, capacitor checkers, transistor testers, signal generators, and ohmmeters.
17109Particular Topics in Electricity/Electronics These courses provide instruction in the theory and skills needed in fields involving electricity and electronics and related fields that focus on electrical wiring or electronic signals.
17110Analog and Digital Circuits In these courses, analog and digital circuits and systems are compared. Topics covered include binary and continuously variable currents and signals (typically in the context of voltage), waveforms, signal loss and distortion, modulation, and signal processing. These courses may also introduce other media, such as sound waves and liquids.
17111Analog Circuits Analog Circuit courses emphasize currents and voltages that have continuously variable signals and, due to that emphasis, concentrate on signal modulation, transmission and reception, signal loss and distortion, and waveforms. These courses may also address conversion techniques.
17112Digital Circuits Digital Circuit courses emphasize currents and voltages that have binary states and, due to that emphasis, concentrate on transmission and reception of binary data, signal loss, and processing circuitry. These courses may also address conversion techniques.
17147Electricity/Electronics—Independent Study Electricity/Electronics—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore electricity- or electronics-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
17148Electricity/Electronics—Workplace Experience Electricity/Electronics—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to electricity and/or electronics. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
17149Electricity/Electronics—Other Other Electricity/Electronics courses.
17995Architecture and Construction—Aide Architecture and Construction—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
17997Architecture and Construction—Independent study Architecture and Construction—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore architecture and construction-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
17998Architecture and Construction—Workplace Experience Architecture and Construction—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to architecture or construction. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
17999Architecture and Construction—Other Other Architecture and Construction courses.
18001Introduction to Agriculture and Natural ResourcesIntroduction to Agriculture and Natural Resources courses survey a wide array of topics within the agricultural industry, exposing students to the many and varied types of agriculture and career opportunities and those in related fields. These courses serve to introduce students to the agricultural field, providing them an opportunity to identify an area for continued study or to determine that their interest lies elsewhere. These courses often focus on developing communication skills, scientific research, types of business ownership, business principles, and leadership skills.
18002 Agriculture—ComprehensiveAgriculture—Comprehensive courses cover a wide range of agricultural topics, including plant and animal science, production, and processing; agricultural mechanics; food production for global populations; construction and repair of farm structures; business operations and management; and the careers available in the agricultural industry. These courses may also include topics such as chemical and soil science, ecology, agricultural marketing, and veterinary science.
18003Agriculture and Natural Resources—ComprehensiveAgriculture and Natural Resources—Comprehensive courses may cover a wide range of topics concerning agriculture and natural resources, including plant and animal science, production, and processing; environmental science and conservation; ecology; agricultural mechanics; agricultural construction; food production for a growing global population, business operations and management; and the careers available in the agricultural/natural resources industry. These courses may also include topics such as chemical and soil science, forestry, agricultural marketing, and veterinary science.
18004Biological Applications in AgricultureBiological Applications in Agriculture courses are designed to integrate topics in science and agriculture. In these courses, students explore the world of agriculture and the associated biological principles. Competencies emphasize and reinforce standards for biology with agricultural applications.
18005Particular Topics in Environmental Service SystemsThese courses provide students with specialized knowledge and help them develop skills in particular topics concerning the structure, processes, and implementation of environmental service systems.
18051Plant Systems/ScienceFormerly Plant Production/Science, Plant Systems/Science courses provide knowledge about the propagation of plants for food and fiber. These courses may cover such topics as soil science, irrigation, pest and weed control, food and fiber processing, and farm operations. These courses may also cover the knowledge and skills needed to produce all types of crops or may emphasize a particular area of the agricultural industry.
18052Horticultural ScienceFormerly known as General Horticulture, Horticultural Science courses expose students to the art and science of growing plants, shrubs, trees, flowers, fruits, and vegetables. In doing so, they cover a wide variety of topics, including principles of plant science, greenhouse and nursery operations, soils and growing media mixtures, fruit and vegetable production, turf/golf course management, interior and exterior plantscaping, irrigation systems, weed and pest control, and floral design.
18053Ornamental HorticultureOrnamental Horticulture courses provide information regarding the care and propagation of plants, flowers, trees, and shrubs, but place a special emphasis on those plants that are used for decorative and aesthetic purposes. Because of this particular emphasis, Ornamental Horticulture courses usually concentrate on nurseries and greenhouses and on the floristry industry.
18054Turf and Landscape Management Turf and Landscape Management courses provide instruction that incorporates plant science, soil and growing media mixtures, plant identification and optimal environments, and landscape design. These courses emphasize applying such knowledge and skill to the design, establishment, and maintenance of lawns, parks, open space, golf courses and other sports facilities, and similar environments.
18055Soil ScienceSoil Science courses involve the study of soil properties, including soil chemistry, biology, fertility, mineralogy, and hydrology. Topics covered may also include soil conservation, irrigation, soil genesis, soil surveys, and management.
18056Particular Topics in Plant Systems These courses examine specific topics related to Plant Systems, such as floral design, hydroponics, or landscaping, rather than provide a general study of plant systems or horticulture.
18097Plant Systems—Independent Study Courses in Plant Systems—Independent Study, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to plant systems. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
18098Plant Systems—Workplace Experience Plant Systems—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to plant systems (care, propagation, and processing). Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
18099Plant Systems—Other Other Plant Systems courses.
18101Animal Production/ScienceAnimal Production/Science courses impart information about the care and management of companion and farm animals. These courses may cover animal nutrition, health, behavior, selection, reproduction, anatomy and physiology, facilities, product processing, research, qualitative and quantitative analyses as a basis for decisionmaking, and marketing. Students may study a particular species, or they may learn how to care for and maintain livestock as a more inclusive study.
18102Small Animal CareSmall Animal Care courses focus on the care and management of small animals. Animal nutrition, health, behavior, reproduction and breeding, anatomy and physiology, use of qualitative and quantitative analyses for decisionmaking, facilities, handling and training, and grooming are typical areas of study.
18103Large Animal CareLarge Animal Care courses focus on the care and management of large animals. Animal nutrition, health, behavior, reproduction and breeding, anatomy and physiology, use of qualitative and quantitative analyses for decisionmaking, facilities, handling and training, and grooming are typical areas of study. Course topics may include product processing and marketing.
18104Equine ScienceEquine Science courses focus on the care and management of horses. Animal nutrition, health, behavior, reproduction and breeding, anatomy and physiology, use of qualitative and quantitative analyses for decisionmaking, facilities, handling and training, and grooming are typical areas of study.
18105Veterinary ScienceVeterinary Science courses impart information about the causes, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases and injuries of animals, typically emphasizing domestic companion and farm animals. Course topics focus on anatomy and physiology, nutrition, behavior and training, disease prevention, reproduction, ethics of animal care, grooming, feeding, maintaining equipment and facilities, and other areas of study as appropriate.
18106Particular Topics in Animal Systems These courses examine specific topics related to animal care and management, production, or processing, such as equine training or animal waste management, rather than provide a general study of animal care and the systems related to their growth and management.
18107Animal NutritionAnimal Nutrition courses provide students with opportunities to study the structure and function of organic and inorganic nutrients. Topics may include the essential nutritive requirements of domestic livestock, poultry, and companion animals; digestion, absorption, metabolism, and barriers for nutrient utilization; sources of nutrients; application of energy systems and concepts; and regulation of feed intake in animals. These courses also teach students how to compare and contrast the nutritional levels for animal maintenance and production.
18108Animal GeneticsAnimal Genetics courses explore genetic inheritance in agricultural animals and the identification of livestock breeds by the origin, significance, distribution, and domestication of animal species. These courses allow students to compare and contrast the hierarchical classification of the major agricultural animal species and identify breeding system options based on the principles of genetics. These courses also address selecting animals based on quantitative breeding values for specific characteristics.
18109Integrated Pest ManagementIntegrated Pest Management courses help students develop an understanding of the life cycles of and damage caused by pests, diseases, and weeds. Course topics may include the application of pesticides and/or herbicides to manage pest populations and assessing the effectiveness of pest management plans.
18147Animal Systems—Independent Study Courses in Animal Systems—Independent Study, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to animal systems. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
18148Animal Systems—Workplace Experience Animal Systems—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to animal systems (management, care, and/or processing). Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
18149Animal Systems—Other Other Animal Systems courses.
18201Agribusiness Management Agribusiness Management courses provide students with the information and skills necessary for success in agribusiness and in operating entrepreneurial ventures in the agricultural industry. These courses may cover topics such as economic principles, budgeting, risk management, finance, business law, marketing and promotion strategies, insurance, and resource management. Other possible topics include developing a business plan, employee/employer relations, problem-solving and decisionmaking, commodities, and building leadership skills. These courses may also incorporate a survey of the careers within the agricultural industry.
18202Agricultural Entrepreneurship Agricultural Entrepreneurship courses focus on the personal skills necessary for success in entrepreneurial ventures in the agricultural industry. Topics include setting goals, assessing and solving problems, evaluating financial progress and success, business planning, information management and evaluation, and recordkeeping.
18203Agricultural Leadership Agricultural Leadership courses help students develop leadership skills with a focus on opportunities in the food, fiber, and natural resources industries. Topics may include but are not limited to human relationships and effective communication, decisionmaking and problem-solving, leadership qualities and styles, and ensuring successful completion of group activities.
18204Particular Topics in Agribusiness These courses examine specific topics related to Agribusiness, such as international agriculture or commodities, rather than provide a general study of agribusiness principles.
18205Agriculture Computers and TechnologyAgriculture Computers and Technology courses help students develop their knowledge and skills in using computer and other technology to operate and manage agricultural businesses. These courses allow students to use computer hardware, software, and the Internet to find information, record and analyze financial and production data, track market trends and economic forecasts, monitor weather, utilize global positioning systems, and prepare communications and reports.
18247Agribusiness—Independent Study Courses in Agribusiness—Independent Study, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to agribusiness. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
18248Agribusiness—Workplace Experience Agribusiness—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to agribusiness. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
18249Agribusiness—Other Other Agribusiness Courses
18301Agricultural ProductionAgricultural Production courses combine content related to animal and plant production, providing comprehensive coverage of the production functions of the agricultural industry. These courses typically cover such topics as care and management of farm animals, crop production and harvesting, plant and animal insect and disease control, efficient resource management, analyses of qualitative/quantitative data for decisionmaking, and farm management.
18302Agricultural Processing Agricultural Processing courses impart the knowledge and skills needed to bring animal and plant products to market. They may cover a wide variety of topics, including care and maintenance of animals or plants, quality selection and preservation, equipment care and sanitation, government regulations, and marketing and consumer trends. Agricultural Processing courses may present an overview of agricultural processing or may specialize in particular types of products.
18303Plant Processing Plant Processing courses impart the knowledge and skills needed to bring plant products to market. They may cover a wide variety of topics, including plant production, quality selection and preservation, equipment care and sanitation, government regulations, and marketing and consumer trends. Plant Processing courses may present an overview of product processing or may specialize in specific plant products.
18304Animal Processing Animal Processing courses impart the knowledge and skills needed to bring animal products to market. Although these courses may present an overview of animal care and maintenance, they typically emphasize quality selection, product preservation, equipment care and sanitation, government regulations, and marketing and consumer trends. Animal Processing courses may present an overview of several types of animal products or may specialize in particular products, such as meat, leather, wool, dairy products, and so on.
18305Food Product Processing Food Product Processing courses impart the knowledge and skills needed to produce and manufacture food products for the consumer market. These courses focus on food products while covering a variety of topics, such as quality selection and preservation, equipment care and sanitation, government regulations, marketing, consumer trends, and product research and development.
18306Aquaculture Aquaculture courses impart the knowledge and skills needed for producing fish, plants, and other species living in an aquatic environment, and course topics typically include the selection, propagation, harvesting, and marketing of those species. Instruction may also address aquatic and marine biology, ecosystems, water quality and management, and business practices.
18307Agriculture and Society Agriculture and Society courses provide an overview of the importance of, impact on, and relationships between agricultural endeavors and society at large. These courses typically emphasize economic and environmental factors and impacts (such as urban and agricultural water use) and the influences of society on agricultural endeavors (including production, processing, and distribution). Current technological advances (such as genetic engineering) may also be discussed.
18308Agricultural Biotechnology Agricultural Biotechnology courses apply biological principles and understanding to plant and animal science in order to produce or refine agricultural products. Course topics typically include but are not limited to microbiology, genetics, growth and reproduction, structural basis of function in living systems, chemistry of living systems, quantitative problem-solving, and data acquisition and display. These courses also often cover the ethics of biotechnology.
18309Particular Topics in Agricultural Production/Processing These courses examine specific topics related to producing and processing agricultural products (such as meat cutting) rather than provide a general study of production or processing.
18310Sustainable/Alternative AgricultureSustainable/Alternative Agriculture courses explore technological and environmental changes and concerns. These courses address alternative approaches to food production including, but not limited to, organics, low-input, natural, and sustainable production methodology and practices. Course content may include comparing the effects of alternative production practices to those of conventional production practices.
18311ViticultureViticulture courses prepare students for further studies in grape-growing, viticulture, and wine-making industry. Course topics typically include establishing and managing vineyards; harvesting; fermentation and wine making; marketing; and exploring career options within the industry. Agricultural applications specific to vineyards and wineries are emphasized.
18347Agricultural Production and Processing—Independent StudyCourses in Agricultural Production and Processing—Independent Study, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to agricultural production and processing. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
18348Agricultural Production and Processing—Workplace Experience Agricultural Production and Processing—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to agricultural production and processing. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
18349Agricultural Production and Processing—Other Other Agricultural Production and Processing courses.
18401Agriculture Mechanics/Equipment/StructuresAgriculture Mechanics/Equipment/Structures courses provide students with the skills and knowledge that are specifically applicable to the tools and equipment used in the industry. While learning to apply their knowledge of the basic principles of technological design and production skills (engine mechanics, power systems, welding, and carpentry, among others), students may explore a broad range of topics, including the operation, mechanics, and care of tools and machines; the construction and repair of structures integral to agricultural operations; a study of electricity and power principles; and the study of alternative fuels, technology and engineering, and safety procedures.
18402Agriculture Mechanics and EquipmentAgriculture Mechanics and Equipment courses provide students with the engineering, power, and mechanical technology principles, skills, and knowledge that are specifically applicable to the agricultural industry. Typical topics include the operation, maintenance, and repair of power, electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, renewable, wind, solar, and mechanical systems.
18403Agriculture StructuresAgriculture Structures courses provide students with the skills and knowledge that are specifically applicable to the construction, maintenance, and repair of structures integral to the agricultural industry, including but not limited to animal enclosures, irrigation systems, and storage facilities. In these courses, students typically study technology, design, planning, and construction knowledge and skills (such as measurement, carpentry, plumbing, concrete, and electrical systems), in addition to the safe operation of tools, technology and machines.
18404Agricultural Metal Fabrication Technology Formerly known as Agriculture Welding, Agricultural Metal Fabrication Technology courses provide students with the skills and knowledge that are specifically applicable to the tools and equipment used in the industry. In learning to apply basic technical knowledge and skills (engines, power, welding, and structures, among others), students may explore a broad range of topics, including the operation, mechanics, and care of tools, technology and machines; the construction and repair of structures integral to agricultural operations; an introduction or review of electricity and power; and safety procedures.
18405Particular Topics in Agricultural Mechanics and ConstructionThese courses examine specific topics related to agricultural mechanics and construction, such as specific vehicles or structures, rather than provide a general study of mechanics and construction techniques.
18406Water TreatmentWater Treatment courses provide instruction regarding the environmental hazards associated with identifying and accepting waste water disposal. Course topics typically include waste water, the steps in waste water treatment, compliance with applicable regulations, and the use of water-testing instruments and water-treatment equipment to treat wastewater.
18447Agricultural Mechanics and Construction—Independent StudyCourses in Agricultural Mechanics and Construction—Independent Study, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to topics of interest related to agricultural mechanics and/or construction. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
18448Agricultural Mechanics and Construction—Workplace ExperienceAgricultural Mechanics and Construction—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in fields related to agricultural mechanics and construction. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
18449Agricultural Mechanics and Construction—Other Other Agricultural Mechanics and Construction courses.
18501Wildlife and Recreation ManagementFormerly known as Wildlife Management, Wildlife and Recreation Management courses provide students with the opportunity to understand and appreciate the importance of maintaining the land and ecological systems that enable nondomesticated animals to thrive. These courses emphasize how humans and animals may both take advantage of the same land or how to gain economic benefits from the land while not degrading its natural resources or depleting plant or animal populations. Students may also learn how to manage wildlife and lands for recreational purposes.
18502Forestry ManagementFormerly known as Forestry, Forestry Management courses provide students with the information and experience necessary for the cultivation, management, and care of forests or timberlands. These courses cover topics such as the processes of regeneration and reforestation, harvesting and conservation of natural resources, erosion and pest control, trail development and maintenance, mapping and surveying, operation of forestry tools, government regulations, environmental stewardship, and urban forestry, including the principles of selecting, planting, and caring for trees in urban settings. Settings may include streets, parks, commercial/industrial landscape settings, and recreational use of forests. These courses also address forestry harvesting and methods to manage, protect, and harvest timber stands and specialty forest crops; equipment maintenance and repair; the selection, planting, transplanting, and harvesting of trees; forest management; and safety procedures.
18504Natural Resources ManagementNatural Resources Management courses combine the fields of ecology and conservation with planning for the efficient use and preservation of land, water, wildlife, and forests. Within the general area of natural resources management, these courses usually cover specific topics and uses, such as hunting or fishing preserves, safe usage initiatives, forest production and management, wildlife preservation, and commercial use of natural resources.
18505Particular Topics in Natural Resources These courses examine specific topics related to natural resources, such as urban forestry or hunter education, rather than provide a general study of natural resource principles and topics.
18506Alternative EnergyAlternative Energy courses help students identify renewable and nonrenewable energy sources and natural resources. Topics typically include alternative energy sources and their respective advantages and disadvantages; the impact of conventional and alternative energy sources on the environment; the efficiency of energy production from various sources; and careers in the fields of alternative energy and sustainability.
18547Natural Resources—Independent Study Courses in Natural Resources—Independent Study, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to natural resources. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
18548Natural Resources—Workplace Experience Natural Resources—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to natural resources. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
18549Natural Resources—Other Other Natural Resources courses.
18995Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources—Aide Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
18997Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources—Independent StudyCourses in Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources—Independent Study, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topic of interest related to agriculture, food, and natural resources. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
18998Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources—Workplace ExperienceAgriculture, Food, and Natural Resources—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to agriculture, food, and natural resources. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
18999Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources—Other Other Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources courses.
19001Human Services Career ExplorationHuman Services Career Exploration courses introduce and expose students to career opportunities pertaining to the provision of individual, family, personal, and consumer services for other human beings. Course topics vary and may include, but are not limited to, child development and services, counseling and mental health services, family and community services, personal care services, and consumer services. Course activities depend upon the careers being explored.
19051Child CareChild Care courses provide students with knowledge about the physical, mental, emotional, and social growth and development of children from birth through pre-school age. Main topics include the fundamentals of working with infants, toddlers, and older children; providing healthy environments; evaluating child care settings; and examining the practices, regulations, and opportunities in the child care industry. Often Child Care courses provide students with practical experience, including observation time in a child care center. Advanced topics may include various learning theories; development of activities; operation of a child care center; recognition of childhood diseases, abuse, and neglect; and first aid/emergency training.
19052Child DevelopmentChild Development courses provide students with knowledge about the physical, mental, emotional, social, and moral growth and development of children from conception to pre-school age, emphasizing the application of this knowledge in child care settings and/or home environments. Brain development and current developmental research are addressed. These courses typically include related topics such as the appropriate care of infants, toddlers, and young children.
19053Elder CareElder Care courses emphasize the care of human beings as they grow older. These courses involve the study of the biological, physiological, social, and psychological needs and concerns of the elderly, and deal with economic and legal issues, the aging process, death, and dying in a realistic manner. Elder Care courses may cover work and personal habits appropriate to the field, and may also offer the opportunity to explore various careers.
19054Child and Adult Care ServicesFormerly known as Caregiving Service, Child and Adult Care Services courses emphasize the care of human beings who are unable or who need assistance to care for themselves. These courses involve the study of the biological, physiological, social, and psychological needs and concerns of young children, the elderly, and/or the disabled. Additional topics may include economic and legal issues, planning daily routines; appropriate environments and activities; growth and aging processes; and techniques for managing a center or working in others’ homes.
19055Particular Topics in Child and Elder Care These courses examine specific topics related to child and elder care, such as regulations of the industry or caring for people with special needs, rather than providing a general study of child and elder care.
19097Child and Elder Care—Independent Study Child and Elder Care—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to child and elder care. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
19098Child and Elder Care—Workplace Experience Child and Elder Care—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to caring for others. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
19099Child and Elder Care—Other Other Child and Elder Care courses.
19101Cosmetology—Licensing Cosmetology—Licensing courses provide students with the knowledge and skills applicable to the care of hair, skin, and nails, and prepare students for the state’s Board of Cosmetology examinations. Almost always a series of courses with a specified number of instructional hours, Cosmetology— Licensing courses also require applied experience. Course content covers such topics as human anatomy and skin conditions, chemistry and bacteriology, sanitation and sterilization, state laws and regulations, and shop management. These courses provide students with experiences in shampooing, cutting, styling, bleaching, coloring, tinting, waving, and relaxing hair and providing facials and manicures.
19102Barbering Barbering courses provide students with the skills and experience to shave, style, and trim mustaches and beards and to cut, shampoo, and style hair. Course topics include hygiene, skin and scalp disease, and use of equipment. Barbering courses may aim to prepare students for the state’s licensing examinations, and may include topics similar to those included in Cosmetology courses.
19103Hair Styling Hair Styling courses provide students with the skills and experience to cut, shampoo, and style hair. Course topics include hygiene, skin and scalp disease, and use of equipment. These courses provide students with experiences in shampooing, cutting, styling, bleaching, coloring, tinting, waving, and relaxing hair.
19104Cosmetology—Non-licensing Cosmetology—Non-licensing courses provide students with the knowledge and skills applicable to the care of hair, skin, and nails, but do not necessarily prepare students for the state’s Board of Cosmetology examinations. Students gain experience in hair care, facials, and manicures; course topics usually include human anatomy, sanitation and sterilization, and related chemistry and bacteriology. Shop management and state regulations may also be included.
19105Cosmetology—Nail Specialization Cosmetology—Nail Specialization courses offer students experience in providing manicures, pedicures, and nail extension treatments. These courses may also include topics such as hygiene, entrepreneurship, human relations, and other related subject matter.
19106Cosmetology—Facial Specialization Cosmetology—Facial Specialization courses offer students information and experience related to skin care, the provision of facials, make-up application, and facial massage. These courses may also include topics such as hygiene and sanitation, human anatomy and skin conditions, entrepreneurship, and/or human relations.
19107Particular Topics in Cosmetology These courses examine specific topics related to cosmetology not otherwise described, such as electrolysis, rather than providing a general study.
19147Cosmetology—Independent Study Cosmetology—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to cosmetology. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
19148Cosmetology—Workplace Experience Cosmetology—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in the cosmetology field. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
19149Cosmetology—Other Other Cosmetology courses.
19151Teaching Profession Teaching Profession courses introduce students to the principles underlying teaching and learning, the responsibilities and duties of teachers, and the techniques of imparting knowledge and information. These courses typically expose students to and train them in classroom management, student behavior, leadership and human relations skills, assessment of student progress, teaching strategies, and various career opportunities in the field of education.
19152Educational Methodology Educational Methodology courses prepare students to teach and guide others. These courses typically provide opportunities for students to develop their own teaching objectives, to design lesson plans, and to experience teaching in a controlled environment. Students examine and practice teaching strategies, learning styles, time management and planning strategies, presentation and questioning skills, classroom management, and evaluation techniques.
19153Teaching—Early Childhood EducationFormerly known as Early Childhood Education, Teaching—Early Childhood Education courses address child development and education issues, so that students can guide the development of children in educational settings. These courses typically include the planning and implementing of developmentally appropriate learning activities, health and safety practices, safe learning environments, and legal requirements for teaching young children.
19154Particular Topics in Education These courses examine specific topics in education other than those already described, such as management of school-age children, rather than providing a general study of the teaching profession.
19155Instructional TechnologyInstructional Technology courses address the implementation of technical devices and processes that are used to improve and facilitate learning. Content includes, but is not limited to, productivity tools, interactive multimedia, communications, educational software and hardware, instructional applications, and ethical, legal, social, and professional issues.
19197Education—Independent Study Education—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to education. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
19198Education—Workplace Experience Education—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to education. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
19199Education—Other Other Education courses.
19201Clothing and Textiles Clothing and Textiles courses introduce students to and expand upon the various aspects of apparel, garment construction, and the textile industry, conveying the commercial application of design principles, production processes, and maintenance techniques. These courses usually address the selection, characteristics, care, and repair of various textiles; operation and care of commercial sewing machines; design, construction, and production of fabrics and/or garments; and career opportunities in the garment or textile industry.
19202Clothing/Textile Maintenance Clothing/Textile Maintenance courses provide students with the knowledge and skills to clean, care for, and maintain clothing and textiles. Course topics typically include dry cleaning and laundering techniques, identifying fabrics and the optimal cleaning agents and processes, instruction in altering and repairing garments, and the safe use of the equipment, tools, and agents.
19203Apparel Construction Apparel Construction courses provide students with the knowledge and skill to construct, alter, and repair clothing and textile products. Course topics typically include taking measurements, creating and preparing patterns, and various sewing techniques; topics may also include customer service, fashion design principles, and business management. These courses may also offer specialized knowledge in a particular type of garment.
19204Apparel and Textile Services Apparel and Textile Services courses introduce students to and expand upon various services that concern the care and maintenance of apparel, textiles, and furnishing. Course topics may include upholstery, dry cleaning, commercial sewing, and tailoring.
19205Home FurnishingHome Furnishing courses provide students with basic knowledge regarding furnishing and decorating home environments. While exploring design principles, personal or customer needs and style, and decisionmaking, students may also explore the following topics: color, texture, furniture styles and arrangement, lighting, window treatments, floor and wall coverings, and home improvement/modification. Home Furnishing courses may also cover architectural style and design and take a larger look at housing problems or current housing issues.
19206Home Furnishings Production Home Furnishings Production courses enable students to plan, select, and construct upholstery, slip covers, draperies and other window treatments, and other home accessories. Some courses may emphasize upholstery exclusively. Course content typically includes proper use of equipment, interior decorating principles, and employability skills.
19207Particular Topics in Apparel and Furnishings These courses examine specific topics in apparel and furnishings other than those already described, such as tailoring or shoe repair, rather than providing a general study.
19247Apparel and Furnishings—Independent Study Apparel and Furnishings—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to apparel, textiles, and furnishings. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
19248Apparel and Furnishings—Workplace Experience Apparel and Furnishings—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to apparel, textiles, and furnishings. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
19249Apparel and Furnishings—Other Other Apparel and Furnishings courses.
19251Family and Consumer Sciences—ComprehensiveFamily and Consumer Sciences—Comprehensive courses help students to develop the knowledge and skills that are used to manage one’s family and career efficiently and productively. Course topics typically include foods and nutrition; apparel; child care and development; housing, interior design, and maintenance; consumer decisions; personal financial management; interpersonal relationships; and careers available in family and consumer sciences.
19252Food Preparation and Health ManagementFormerly known as Food and Nutrition, Food Preparation and Health Management courses provide students with an understanding of food’s role in society, instruction in how to plan and prepare meals, and information about the nutritional and health benefits of minimizing processed and prepared food and prepackaged/prepared meals from one’s diet. These courses not only build on the basic skills of food preparation but also address financial considerations and recipe conversion to make foods healthier. Some courses place a heavier emphasis on a balanced diet, while others concentrate on specific types of food preparation (such as low sodium, low fat, or increased whole foods). These courses will also address current issues such as organic foods and vegan cooking.
19253Nutrition and WellnessNutrition and Wellness courses focus on how physical, mental, social, psychological, and emotional wellness are related to food, food selection, and health. Topics typically include dietary needs across one’s lifespan, stress management, special dietary issues, and eating disorders as well as societal and genetic health issues that are addressed through the prevention education component of the class. Other topics covered range from healthy food selection, label reading, and diet analysis to understanding additives, making wise food choices, and dealing with food allergies.
19254Food Science Food Science courses offer opportunities for students to study the composition, structure, and properties of foods and their components as well as the consumption of food and the chemical changes that occur during the processing, storage, preparation, and consumption of food for the consumer. These courses often explore the effects of various materials, microorganisms, and processes on food products through laboratory experiments and can address food innovations to meet the needs of society. Culinary techniques and the safe handling of food in the home environment are commonly included.
19255Child Development/ParentingChild Development/Parenting courses provide students with knowledge about family systems and relationships and information about how parents can address the physical, mental, emotional, and social growth and development of children from conception to adolescence. In addition, these courses help students discover how parents should respond to the various stages of childhood. Course content typically includes topics such as prenatal development and birth processes, responsibilities and difficulties of parenthood, family structures, societal and cultural influences, fundamentals of children’s emotional and physical development, and the appropriate care of infants, toddlers, and young and school-aged children. These courses may also cover topics specific to teen parenting.
19256Clothing/Sewing Clothing/Sewing courses introduce students to and expand their knowledge of various aspects of wearing apparel, sewing, and fashion. These courses typically include wardrobe planning; selection, care, and repair of various materials; and construction of one or more garments. They may also include related topics, such as fashion design and history, the social and psychological aspects of clothing, careers in the clothing industry, and craft sewing.
19257Life SkillsLife Skills courses provide students with information about a wide range of subjects to assist them in becoming wise consumers and productive adults. These courses often emphasize process skills, including goal-setting, decisionmaking, and other topics such as the setting of priorities, money and time management, interpersonal relationships, and the development of the self. Additionally, specific topics such as wellness, selecting and furnishing houses, meeting transportation needs, nutrition, preparing food, selecting clothing and building a wardrobe, insurance, taxation, and consumer protection may also be covered.
19258Personal and Career ReadinessFormerly known as Self-Management, Personal and Career Readiness courses introduce students to the skills and strategies that are helpful in becoming more focused, productive individuals, wage earners, and family members. These courses typically emphasize goal-setting; decisionmaking; managing time, energy, and stress; and identifying alternatives and coping strategies. They may also allow students to explore various career and lifestyle choices.
19259Family and Interpersonal RelationshipsFormerly known as Family Living, Family and Interpersonal Relationships courses emphasize building and maintaining healthy interpersonal relationships among family members and other members of society. These courses often emphasize (but are not limited to) topics such as the responsibilities of a family and wage earner, balancing a career and personal life, human sexuality and reproduction, marriage preparation, parenthood and the function of the family unit, the family life cycle, and life stages. They also cover topics related to stages of growth and social/dating practices
19260Personal Development Personal Development courses emphasize strengthening self-esteem, recognizing and resisting negative peer pressure, and developing coping skills for dealing with life and career issues and changes (such as family changes). These courses include communication, conflict resolution, practical problem-solving, and decisionmaking. They may also include building resiliency skills and asset building.
19261Human Growth and DevelopmentHuman Growth and Development courses focus on the application of human development theories and stages of growth to the relationships among individuals at various stages of life, as well as provide an understanding of how people change across their lifespans. Course content may include the application of human development theories in family systems and community settings. Interactions of grandparents and their grandchildren, adult children and their aging parents, as well the similarities between caring for the elderly and caring for young children may also be explored.
19262Consumer Economics/Personal Finance Consumer Economics/Personal Finance courses provide students with an understanding of the concepts and principles involved in managing one’s personal finances. These courses emphasize lifespan goal-setting, individual and family decisionmaking, and consumer rights as well as topics that are commonly associated with personal finance so that one can become a financially responsible consumer. Topics may include savings and investing, credit, insurance, taxes and social security, spending patterns and budget planning, contracts, and consumer protection. These courses may also investigate the effects of the global economy on consumers and the family.
19263Home Environments and DesignFormerly known as Home Décor, Home Environments and Design courses provide students with knowledge and skills regarding interior design and decoration of the home for the individual or family. While exploring design principles, personal needs and style and decision making, students may have an opportunity to explore such topics as color, texture, furniture styles and arrangement, lighting, window treatments, floor, wall coverings and home improvement/modification. These courses emphasize personal (rather than commercial) use and application of home décor principles.
19295Family and Consumer Sciences—AideFamily and Consumer Sciences—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
19297Family and Consumer Sciences—Independent StudyFamily and Consumer Sciences—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to home- and self-management. Independent Study courses may provide students with an opportunity to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
19298Family and Consumer Sciences—Workplace ExperienceFamily and Consumer Sciences—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a fields related to family and consumer sciences. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
19299Family and Consumer Sciences—OtherOther Family and Consumer Sciences courses.
19301Counseling and Mental HealthCounseling and Mental Health courses provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary to pursue a counseling and mental health career through simulated environments. These courses allow students to apply their knowledge of ethical and legal responsibilities, the limitations of these responsibilities, and the implications of their actions.
19995Human Services—Aide Human Services—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
19997Human Services—Independent Study Human Services—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to providing human services. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
19998Human Services—Workplace Experience Human Services—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to the provision of human services. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
19999Human Services—Other Other Human Services Care courses.
20001Exploration of Transportation, Distribution and Logistics Exploration of Transportation, Distribution, and Logistics courses introduce students to careers that involve the planning, management, and movement of people, materials, and products using any of several modes of transport. Such careers may also involve infrastructure, vehicular maintenance and repair, and operating or managing facilities that hold what is being transported. Therefore, specific course topics vary widely and depend upon the careers being explored.
20051Truck and Bus Driving Truck and Bus Driving courses instruct students in the proper and safe handling and operation of trucks and buses. Strategies for driving in hazardous conditions, observing laws and regulations, loading cargo or passengers, documenting cargo loads, and expectations of driving careers are all typical course topics.
20052Heavy Equipment Operation Heavy Equipment Operation courses enable students to safely operate the heavy equipment used for mining, construction, and utility industries. Typically, courses also include light maintenance principles and techniques.
20053Aviation Aviation courses provide students with an understanding of the science of flight and typically include the history, regulations, and possible career paths within the aviation industry. Aviation courses usually cover physics, the relationships of weight and balance, principles of navigation and flight control, ground and airport operations and services, and Federal Aviation Agency regulations.
20054Boat Operation Boat Operation courses typically cover operation and maintenance of marine vehicles, marine navigation, and emergency procedures, as well as other skills necessary or useful for work or life at sea (e.g., loading and unloading or cooking). Specific topics may include docking and undocking a vessel, engine maintenance, commercial fishing, firefighting aboard ship, and CPR.
20055Pilot TrainingPilot Training courses prepare students to become pilots by participating in flight training, ground school, and simulator instruction. Topics covered typically include preflight operations; flight maneuvering with reference to ground objects; flying at critically slow air speeds and recovering from stalls; takeoffs and landings; controlling and maneuvering an aircraft; cross country flying; night flying; and emergency operation. Other course content may include meteorology, aerodynamics, navigation, physiology, and airfield and flight environments.
20097Operation—Independent Study Operation—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to the operation of vehicles. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
20098Operation—Workplace Experience Operation—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to the operation of vehicles. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
20099Operation—Other Other Operation courses.
20101Energy/Power Energy/Power courses focus on one or several aspects of energy and power in transportation and work. Course content may include various sources of energy and their use in society (for example, characteristics, availability, conversion, storage, environmental impact, and socioeconomic aspects of various energy sources); principles involved in various means of energy transfer, such as electricity/electronics, hydraulics, pneumatics, heat transfer, and wind/nuclear/solar energies; and the transmission and control of power through mechanical or electrical devices such as motors and engines.
20102Power and Mechanics Power and Mechanics courses enable students to understand the principles underlying various kinds of mechanics (aircraft, auto, diesel, and marine) and how energy is converted, transmitted, and controlled. Topics typically include maintaining and servicing machines, engines, and devices while emphasizing energy sources, electricity, and power transmission. The courses may also provide information on career opportunities within the field of mechanics and/or transportation.
20103Introduction to Automobiles Primarily intended as a personal automobile mechanics course, but also useful for students exploring future careers in automotive technologies, Introduction to Automobiles courses expose students to the various mechanical systems in automobiles and provide basic experience in maintenance tasks. The course may also cover career opportunities in the automotive and/or transportation fields.
20104Automotive Mechanics—Comprehensive Automotive Mechanics—Comprehensive courses emphasize the diagnosis and repair of automobile engines and support systems such as brakes, cooling, drive trains, electrical/electronics components, emission, fuel, ignition, steering, suspension, and transmissions. Course topics often include the comprehension and use of repair manuals, safety, and employability skills (including shop management and entrepreneurship).
20105Particular Topics in Automotive Mechanics These courses provide instruction in the mechanics of a particular system or condition, such as transmissions, brakes, fuel, exhaust, or electrical systems, rather than providing a general study of diagnosis and repair of automobile mechanics.
20106Automotive Service Automotive Service courses emphasize preventative auto maintenance and automobile troubleshooting. Course content typically includes tune-up, oil change, and lubrication skills; tire replacement, alignment, and balancing; and basic knowledge of brake, cooling, electrical, emission, fuel, ignition, steering, suspension, and transmission systems. These courses may also include public relations, sales techniques, and service station management.
20107Diesel Mechanics—Comprehensive Diesel Mechanics—Comprehensive courses prepare students to maintain and repair diesel engines and related systems. Specific course topics may include principles underlying diesel engines, analyzing electrical circuits and systems, troubleshooting and repairing cooling systems, testing and repairing air conditioning charging systems, reading and interpreting service manuals, and identifying the principles and components of fuel injection systems. Courses may also cover safety, employability skills, and entrepreneurship.
20108Particular Topics in Diesel Mechanics These courses cover specific topics relevant to occupations involving the maintenance and repair of vehicles with diesel engines, such as buses and trucks. One topic (or several closely related topics) concerning diesel mechanics is covered in specific detail in this type of course.
20109Small Vehicle Mechanics Small Vehicle Mechanics courses equip students with the knowledge and skill to repair and maintain engines in small vehicles (e.g., motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles, and mopeds). Topics include (but are not limited to) maintaining frames and suspension, wheels and brakes, and drive trains; servicing fuel, exhaust, and electrical systems; performing tune-ups; and maintaining and repairing engines. Students may also learn safety on the job, employability skills, and entrepreneurship.
20110Small Engine Mechanics Small Engine Mechanics courses provide students with the opportunity to learn how to service and recondition small engines, typically emphasizing two- and four-cycle engines. These courses provide students with opportunities to troubleshoot and repair speed controls, lubrication, ignition, fuel, power transfer, cooling, exhaust, and starting systems; use hand, power, and overhaul tools; and read and interpret service manuals and parts’ catalogs. Applications may include lawn mowers, tractors, tillers, power tools, and so on.
20111Marine Mechanics The content of Marine Mechanics courses includes the service and repair of electrical, mechanical, power transfer, hydraulic, fuel, and cooling systems as applied to boat and/or ship engines; boat rigging; trailers; and marine-related merchandise. Courses may also cover communication, human relations, and employability skills, as well as safe, efficient work practices.
20112Heavy Equipment Mechanics Heavy Equipment Mechanics courses include the service and repair of electrical, mechanical, power transfer, hydraulic, fuel, and cooling systems of heavy equipment such as that used in mining, construction, and utility industries.
20113Aircraft Power Plant Aircraft Power Plant courses provide students with the information necessary to troubleshoot, test, repair, and install aircraft engines. Course content usually includes engine ignition, electrical, lubrication, cooling, exhaust, and fuel systems, along with aircraft instrumentation and safety features.
20114Aircraft Airframe Aircraft Airframe courses offer students information and instruction related to the structure and mechanics of aircraft, typically including hydraulic, pneumatic, instrumental, fuel, electrical, cabin atmosphere, and landing gear systems. Aircraft Airframe courses may also cover aircraft metals and coverings and related welding skills.
20115Automotive Detailing and Reconditioning Automotive Detailing and Reconditioning courses provide students with knowledge and skills related to repairing, refinishing, and detailing automobiles. Course topics typically include painting and refinishing, plastics and adhesives, damage analysis, and repair, in addition to occupational safety, employability, and entrepreneurship skills.
20116Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing—Comprehensive Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing courses provide students with knowledge and skills regarding the repair and refinishing of damaged or used cars. Course content may include (but is not limited to) stretching and shrinking auto body sheet metal; welding skills; frame and metal straightening; repair of fiberglass and synthetic materials; removing, repairing, and installing auto body parts such as panels, hoods, doors, and windows/glass; preparing vehicles and vehicle surfaces for refinishing; painting; applying body fillers; and estimating material and labor costs.
20117Particular Topics in Automotive Body Repair and Refinishing These courses provide specific instruction in individual topics relevant to the repair and refinishing of automobile bodies and surfaces. One topic or several closely related topics (such as nonstructural part replacement, auto body welding, or plastic repair) receive particular attention in this type of course.
20118Boat Repair/Refinishing Boat Repair/Refinishing courses convey a broad range of information and skills about how to repair and refinish boat mechanics, structures, and surfaces. In these courses, students become proficient in marine terminology, learn how to describe types of marine manufacturing and occupations, and prepare new and existing wood, fiberglass, and metal surfaces for painting or refinishing. These courses often cover safety, employability skills, and entrepreneurship.
20119Hybrid EnginesHybrid Engines courses introduce students to the fundamentals of hybrid electric vehicles. These courses explore the hybrid power plant and may include such topics as hybrid batteries, high- and low-voltage systems, inverters, safety procedures, hybrid maintenance and diagnostics, and alternative fuels.
20120Motorsports TechnologyMotorsports Technology courses provide students with an understanding of the principles of race car fabrication and all facets of the racing industry. Technical aspects of the courses may include skill development in vehicle assembly of high-performance engines and components using specialty tools, welding, and auto body procedures. Course content may also explore the motorsports technology industry, address safety issues, and identify careers in the field.
20147Mechanics and Repair—Independent Study Mechanics and Repair—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to the maintenance of vehicles and engines. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
20148Mechanics and Repair—Workplace Experience Mechanics and Repair—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to the maintenance of vehicles and engines. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
20149Mechanics and Repair—Other Other Mechanics and Repair courses.
20151Distribution—Comprehensive Distribution—Comprehensive courses provide students with knowledge and skills related to the safe and efficient delivery of commodities to various markets. Course content typically includes the comparative advantages of various forms of transportation, distribution networks, processes for tracking large shipments of material, transportation of goods in a safe and secure manner, and packaging.
20152Warehouse Operations Warehouse Operations courses convey the principles and processes underlying the receiving, loading and unloading, tracking, and storing of large quantities of materials. Course topics typically include a variety of logistical implications for moving materials by several different modes of transportation, safety and security, and appropriate storage techniques.
20197Distribution and Logistics—Independent Study Distribution and Logistics—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to distribution and logistics. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
20198Distribution and Logistics—Workplace Experience Distribution and Logistics—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to distribution and logistics. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
20199Distribution and Logistics—Other Other Distribution and Logistics courses.
20995Transportation, Distribution and Logistics—Aide Transportation, Distribution, and Logistics—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
20997Transportation, Distribution and Logistics—Independent Study Transportation, Distribution, and Logistics—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to transportation, distribution, and logistics. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
20998Transportation, Distribution and Logistics—Workplace Experience Transportation, Distribution, and Logistics—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in fields related to transportation, distribution, and logistics. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences encountered in the workplace.
20999Transportation, Distribution and Logistics—Other Other Transportation, Distribution and Logistics courses.
21001Pre-Engineering Technology Pre-Engineering Technology courses integrate technology-oriented applications of mathematics and science into pre-engineering activities for students. Course topics may include material sciences, technology processes, enterprises, and career opportunities.
21002Engineering Applications Engineering Applications courses provide students with an overview of the practical uses of a variety of engineering applications. Topics covered usually include hydraulics, pneumatics, computer interfacing, robotics, computer-aided design, computer numerical control, and electronics.
21003Engineering Technology Engineering Technology courses provide students with the opportunity to focus on one or more areas of industrial technology. Students apply technological processes to solve real engineering problems; develop the knowledge and skills to design, modify, use, and apply technology; and may also design and build prototypes and working models. Topics covered in the course include the nature of technology, use of technology, and design processes.
21004Principles of Engineering Principles of Engineering courses provide students with an understanding of the engineering/technology field. Students typically explore how engineers use various technology systems and manufacturing processes to solve problems; they may also gain an appreciation of the social and political consequences of technological change.
21005Engineering—Comprehensive Engineering—Comprehensive courses introduce students to and expand their knowledge of major engineering concepts such as modeling, systems, design, optimization, technology-society interaction, and ethics. Particular topics often include applied engineering graphic systems, communicating technical information, engineering design principles, material science, research and development processes, and manufacturing techniques and systems. The courses may also cover the opportunities and challenges in various branches of engineering.
21006Engineering DesignEngineering Design courses offer students experience in solving problems by applying a design development process. Often using solid modeling computer design software, students develop, analyze, and test product solutions models as well as communicate the features of those models.
21007Engineering Design and Development Engineering Design and Development courses provide students with the opportunity to apply engineering research principles as they design and construct a solution to an engineering problem. Students typically develop and test solutions using computer simulations or models but eventually create a working prototype as part of the design solution.
21008Digital Electronics Digital Electronics courses teach students how to use applied logic in the development of electronic circuits and devices. Students may use computer simulation software to design and test digital circuitry prior to the actual construction of circuits and devices.
21009RoboticsRobotics courses help students develop and expand their skills and knowledge of robotics and related scientific and engineering topics. Course topics may include principles of mechanics, electronics, hydraulics, pneumatics, programmable logic controllers. These courses may emphasize the use of engineering principles to design and build robots, construct and connect sensors, and program robots in the programming language.
21010Computer Integrated Manufacturing Computer Integrated Manufacturing courses involve the study of robotics and automation. Building on computer solid modeling skills, students may use computer numerical control (CNC) equipment to produce actual models of their three-dimensional designs. Course topics may also include fundamental concepts of robotics, automated manufacturing, and design analysis.
21011Civil Engineering Civil Engineering courses expose students to the concepts and skills used by urban planners, developers, and builders. Students may be trained in soil sampling and analysis, topography and surveying, and drafting or blueprint-reading. Additional course topics may include traffic analysis, geologic principles, and urban design.
21012Civil Engineering and Architecture Civil Engineering and Architecture courses provide students with an overview of the fields of Civil Engineering and Architecture while emphasizing the interrelationship of both fields. Students typically use software to address real world problems and to communicate the solutions that they develop. Course topics typically include the roles of civil engineers and architects, project-planning, site-planning, building design, project documentation, and presentation.
21013Aerospace Engineering Aerospace Engineering courses introduce students to the world of aeronautics, flight, and engineering. Topics covered in the course may include the history of flight, aerodynamics and aerodynamics testing, flight systems, astronautics, space life systems, aerospace materials, and systems engineering.
21014Biotechnical Engineering Biotechnical Engineering courses enable students to develop and expand their knowledge and skills in biology, physics, technology, and mathematics. Course content may vary widely, drawing upon diverse fields such as biomedical engineering, biomolecular genetics, bioprocess engineering, agricultural biology, or environmental engineering. Students may engage in problems related to biomechanics, cardiovascular engineering, genetic engineering, agricultural biotechnology, tissue engineering, biomedical devices, human interfaces, bioprocesses, forensics, and bioethics.
21015Particular Topics in Engineering These courses examine specific topics in engineering other than those already described.
21016Engineering AnalysisEngineering Analysis courses help students apply engineering design processes to areas of the designed world, explore ethics in a technological world, and examine systems in civil, mechanical, electrical, and chemical engineering. These courses may provide STEM-based projects to teach students to communicate information through team-based presentations, proposals, and technical reports.
21017PLTW Introduction to Engineering DesignFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Introduction to Engineering Design courses provide an opportunity for students to become involved in hands-on projects that require math, science, and engineering applications. In these courses, students review problems, document work in an engineering notebook, and design solutions using 3D modeling software.
21018PLTW Principles of EngineeringFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Principles of Engineering courses focus on solving a wide range of engineering problems. Topics such as mechanisms, structure and material strength, and automation are explored as students research, strategize, and document the design process.
21019PLTW Aerospace EngineeringFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Aerospace Engineering courses are designed to teach students the fundamentals of atmospheric and space flight. These courses emphasize physics and robot system concepts by focusing on the design of an airfoil, propulsion systems, rockets, and remotely operated vehicles. Course content may include the study of orbital mechanics using industry-standard software.
21020PLTW Biological EngineeringFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Biomedical Engineering courses help students develop thinking skills and prepare them for careers in the biological engineering field. Courses emphasize energy and agricultural sustainability solutions by covering such topics as genetic engineering, biofuels, and biomanufacturing.
21021PLTW Civil Engineering and ArchitectureFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Civil Engineering and Architecture courses focus on building and site design and development. In these courses, students use 3D architecture design software and apply math, science, and standard engineering projects to create residential and commercial designs.
21022PLTW Computer Integrated ManufacturingFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Computer Integrated Manufacturing courses introduce students to high-tech innovations related to modern manufacturing. These courses emphasize manufacturing processes, product design, robotics, and automation.
21023PLTW Digital ElectronicsFollowing Project Lead the Way’s suggested curriculum, PLTW Digital Electronics courses introduce students to digital circuits in appliances and mobile devices. Course topics include combinational and sequential logic, logic gates, integrated circuits, programmable logic devices, along with other circuit design tools.
21047Engineering—Independent Study Engineering—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to engineering. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
21048Engineering—Workplace Experience Engineering—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in an engineering-related field. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
21049Engineering—Other Other Engineering courses.
21051Technological Literacy Technological Literacy courses expose students to the communication, transportation, energy, production, biotechnology, and integrated technology systems and processes that affect their lives. The study of these processes enables students to better understand technological systems and their applications and uses.
21052Technological Processes Technological Processes courses provide students with the opportunity to focus on one or more areas of industrial technology, applying technological processes to solve real problems and developing the knowledge and skills to design, modify, use, and apply technology appropriately. Students may examine case studies, explore simulations, or design and build prototypes and working models.
21053Emerging TechnologiesEmerging Technologies courses expose students to and help them understand new and emerging technologies. The range of technological issues covered in this course can vary widely and content covered can be flexible. Topics covered may include, but are not limited to, lasers, fiber optics, robotics, and transportation technologies.
21054Technology Innovation and Assessment Technology Innovation and Assessment courses use engineering design activities to help students understand how criteria, constraints, and processes affect design solutions and provide students with the skills to systematically assess technological developments or solutions. Course topics may include brainstorming, visualizing, modeling, simulating, constructing, testing, and refining designs.
21055Aerospace Technology Aerospace Technology courses introduce students to the technology systems used in the aerospace industry and their interrelationships. Examples of such systems include satellite communications systems, composite materials in airframe manufacturing, space station constructions techniques, space shuttle propulsion systems, aerostatics, and aerodynamics.
21056Particular Topics in Technology ApplicationsThese courses examine specific topics in technology applications other than those already described.
21057Laser/Fiber OpticsLaser/Fiber Optics courses cover the history, safety, and theory of laser light and laser systems. In these courses, various laser system configurations and operations are examined.
21058Geospatial TechnologyGeospatial Technology courses provide students with experiences pertaining to the study of geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), remote sensing (RS), digital image processing simulator (DIPS), Geodesy, automated cartography (Auto-Carto), land surveying (LS), and navigation. These courses may use spatial analysis models and guidelines for integrating, interpreting, analyzing, and synthesizing geographic data, with a focus on both the implications and limitations of such technologies. Other topics may include interfacing with telecommunications and automated database management systems.
21059Modeling and Simulation TechnologyModeling and Simulation Technology courses allow students to explore the use of modeling, simulation, and game development software to solve real-world problems in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). These courses typically address the systems, processes, tools, and implications of the field of modeling and simulation technology. Courses topics may also include evaluating and testing engineering designs, modeling geospatial data, observing and analyzing physics simulations, programming games for educational purposes, and creating visualization systems with 3D models.
21060Wind EnergyWind Energy courses introduce students to the terminology and other aspects of the wind industry. Course topics may include, but are not limited to, the history and development of the wind industry, types and applications of various wind turbines, environmental and economic issues of the wind industry, and the future of the industry.
21061Wind Turbine Construction and OperationWind Turbine Construction and Operation courses provide students with an understanding of wind turbine operation and the wind energy industry. These course enable students to study site preparation and construction, turbine component specifications and manufacturing, operation and maintenance programs, and data acquisition and assessment.
21062IB Technology, Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Technology, Middle Years Program courses are essentially concerned with solving problems, and they encourage students to investigate, design, plan, create, and evaluate. Content is balanced among systems, information, and materials, but the particular technology subjects may vary.
21097Technology—Independent Study Technology—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to technology systems and processes. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
21098Technology—Workplace Experience Technology—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to technological systems and structures. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
21099Technology—Other Other Technology courses.
21101Drafting Careers Exploration Geared for students with an interest in careers that use drafting skills and applications, Drafting Careers Exploration courses expose students to the opportunities available for draftspeople (engineering, architectural, industrial, and so on). These courses serve to introduce basic skills and the field in general, providing students with the opportunity to identify a focus for continued study or to determine that their interests lie elsewhere.
21102Drafting—GeneralDrafting—General courses introduce students to the technical craft of drawing illustrations to represent and/or analyze design specifications and then refine the skills necessary for this craft. Drafting—General courses use exercises from a variety of applications to provide to students the knowledge and experience to develop the ability to perform freehand sketching, lettering, geometric construction, and multiview projections and to produce various types of drawings (working, detail, assembly, schematic, perspective, and so on). Computer-aided drafting (CAD) systems (if available) are typically introduced and used to fulfill course objectives.
21103Drafting—Architectural Drafting—Architectural courses introduce students to and help them refine the technical craft of drawing illustrations to represent and/or analyze design specifications, using examples drawn from architectural applications. These courses are intended to help students develop general drafting skills, but place a particular emphasis on interior and exterior residential (and light commercial) design, site orientation, floor plans, electrical plans, design sketches, and presentation drawings. In addition, students may prepare scale models.
21104Drafting—Civil/Structural Drafting—Civil/Structural courses introduce students to and help them refine the technical craft of drawing illustrations to represent and/or analyze design specifications, using examples drawn from civil engineering and/or structural applications. These courses are intended to help students develop general drafting skills, but place a particular emphasis on skills needed for typography and survey work.
21105Drafting—Electrical/Electronic Drafting—Electrical/Electronic courses introduce students to and help them refine the technical craft of drawing illustrations to represent and/or analyze design specifications, using examples drawn from electric and/or electronic fields. These courses are intended to help students develop general drafting skills, but place a particular emphasis on those skills needed for electrical and electronic schematics.
21106Drafting—Technical/Mechanical Drafting—Technical/Mechanical courses introduce students to and help them refine the technical craft of drawing illustrations to represent and/or analyze design specifications, using examples drawn from industrial applications. These courses are intended to help students develop general drafting skills, but place a particular emphasis on sectioning, auxiliary views, revolutions, and surface development. In these courses, students typically learn basic machining and fabrication processes as they draw schematic diagrams featuring cams, gears, linkages, levers, pulleys, and so on.
21107CAD Design and Software Frequently offered as an intermediary step to more advanced drafting courses (or as a concurrent course), CAD Design and Software courses introduce students to the computer-aided drafting systems available in the industry.
21108Blueprint Reading Blueprint Reading courses provide students with the knowledge and ability to interpret the lines, symbols, and conventions of drafted blueprints. They generally emphasize interpreting, not producing, blueprints, although the courses may provide both types of experiences. Blueprint Reading courses typically use examples from a wide variety of industrial and technological applications.
21147Drafting—Independent Study Drafting—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore drafting-related topics of interest. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
21148Drafting—Workplace Experience Drafting—Workplace Experience courses provide work experience in a field related to drafting. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
21149Drafting—Other Other Drafting courses.
21995Engineering and Technology—Aide Engineering and Technology—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing or delivering course curricula. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students.
21997Engineering and Technology—Independent Study Engineering and Technology—Independent Study courses, often conducted with instructors as mentors, enable students to explore topics of interest related to engineering and/or technology. Independent Study courses may serve as an opportunity for students to expand their expertise in a particular application, to explore a topic in greater detail, or to develop more advanced skills.
21998Engineering and Technology—Workplace Experience Engineering and Technology—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to engineering or technology. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace.
21999Engineering and Technology—Other Other Engineering and Technology courses.
22001Standardized Test Preparation Standardized Test Preparation courses help prepare students for national standardized tests such as the PSAT, SAT, and ACT. In particular, these courses assist students in developing and/or expanding their vocabulary, test-taking, and reasoning skills through study, lecture, and practice drills. Course topics may include vocabulary review; root words, prefixes, and suffixes; mathematical concepts, logic, and rules; and general problem-solving and test-taking strategies.
22002State Test Preparation State Test Preparation courses prepare students for particular state tests required for graduation. These courses may cover specific content areas (such as citizenship, mathematics, language arts, and so on) according to individual student needs, or they may provide a more general course of study, similar to the Standardized Test Preparation course described above.
22003Study Skills Study Skills courses prepare students for success in high school and/or for postsecondary education. Course topics may vary according to the students involved, but typically include reading improvement skills, such as scanning, note-taking, and outlining; library and research skills; listening and note-taking; vocabulary skills; and test-taking skills. The courses may also include exercises designed to generate organized, logical thinking and writing.
22004Dropout Prevention ProgramDropout Prevention Program courses vary widely, but typically are targeted at students who have been identified as being at risk of dropping out of or failing in school. Course content may include study skills and individual tutorials; career exploration or job readiness skills; communication skills; personal assessment and awareness activities; speaker presentations; and small-group seminars.
22005TutorialTutorial courses provide students with the assistance they need to successfully complete their coursework. Students may receive help in one or several subjects.
22006Study HallStudy Hall courses provide students with the opportunity and time to complete classroom assignments or school projects. Students typically work on their own, without the help of a tutor; however, they are supervised and usually remain in the classroom.
22007Advancement Via Individual Determination (AVID)AVID courses encourage students to pursue college readiness (and eventual enrollment). Typically, the courses offer activities that enable students to learn organizational and study skills, enhance their critical thinking skills, receive academic assistance as necessary, and be motivated to aspire to college education.
22051Office Aide Office Aide courses provide students with the opportunity to work in campus offices, developing skills related to clerical office work. Duties may include typing, filing, record-keeping, receiving visitors, answering the telephone, and duplicating, among others. These courses emphasize appropriate work attitudes, human relations, and proper office procedures.
22052Guidance Aide Guidance Aide courses provide students with the opportunity to work in the campus guidance office. Duties may include typing, filing, record-keeping, assisting students, answering the telephone, and duplicating, among others. Students may also act as guides to new students. These courses emphasize appropriate work attitudes, human relations, and proper office procedures.
22053Library/AVC Aide Library/AVC Aide courses provide students with the opportunity to work in the library or in media and audiovisual centers. Duties may include collecting, distributing, and categorizing materials; operating audiovisual equipment; assisting students and teachers; and performing clerical duties. Students typically gain experience in library science and/or media and audiovisual technology.
22054Tutoring Practicum Tutoring Practicum courses provide students with the opportunity to offer tutorial assistance to their peers or to younger students. After an initial training period during which students learn how to work with other students and how to make use of the available resources (e.g., staff, written material, audiovisual aids, and so on), students engage in tutoring and assisting others who need or request help.
22101Leadership Leadership courses are designed to strengthen students’ personal and group leadership skills. Typically intended for students involved in extracurricular activities (especially as officers of organizations or student governing bodies), these courses may cover such topics as public speaking, effective communication, human relations, parliamentary law and procedures, organization and management, and group dynamics.
22102School Orientation School Orientation courses provide students with an introduction to the culture of their school so that they understand staff expectations and the school’s structure and conventions. These courses may vary widely according to the philosophy, aims, and methods of each school.
22103School Governance School Governance courses convene students as an entire student body to discuss common concerns, organize groups for action, make decisions, and solve school-related problems. Because of the nature of these courses, they are typically offered at private, alternative, or experimental schools.
22104Community Service Community Service courses provide students with the opportunity to volunteer their time, energy, and talents to serve a community project or organization. These courses are usually (but not always) conducted with a seminar component, so that students can use their volunteer experiences to learn how to solve problems, make decisions, and communicate effectively.
22105Values ClarificationValues Clarification courses enable students to explore individual and societal actions and implications in order to help them develop personal values and make decisions about their lives. Examples of discussion topics include philosophy and religion, world resource allocation, genetic engineering, environmental issues, and death-related issues (euthanasia, suicide, and abortion).
22106Seminar Seminar courses vary widely, but typically offer a small peer group the opportunity to investigate areas of interest. Course objectives may include improvement of research and investigatory skills, presentation skills, interpersonal skills, group process skills, and problem-solving and critical-thinking skills. Seminars aimed at juniors and seniors often include a college and career exploration and planning component.
22107Peer CounselingPeer Counseling courses allow students to serve as leaders to reduce conflict among their fellow students. Students may work individually or as part of a group to solve problems and promote mutual support among their peers.
22108IB Creativity, Action, ServiceCreativity, Action, and Service (CAS) courses are a required extracurricular component of the International Baccalaureate program. The CAS requirement emphasizes the importance of life outside of the world of scholarship, providing a refreshing counterbalance to feeling overwhelmed in a demanding academic program. Participation in theater productions, sports, and community service activities encourages young people to share their energies and special talents while developing awareness, concern, and the ability to work cooperatively with others. The goal of educating the whole person and fostering a more compassionate citizenry comes alive in an immediate way when students reach beyond themselves and their books.
22109IB Extended EssayObligatory for every International Baccalaureate degree candidate, IB Extended Essay aim to help students develop an independent, self-directed piece of research, culminating in a 4,000 word paper. These courses provide students with practical preparation for later research and help build their analysis, synthesis, and evaluation skills.
22110AP SeminarDesigned by the College Board to parallel college-level courses in critical thinking and communications,  AP Seminar courses provide students with the opportunity to explore complex real world issues through cross-curricular lenses. Course topics vary and may include local, civic, or global issues and interdisciplinary subject areas. Courses typically emphasize research, communication, and critical-thinking skills to explore the issues addressed. Students may also examine source materials such as articles and other texts; speeches and personal accounts; and relevant artistic and literary works.
22111IB Approaches to LearningObligatory for every International Baccalaureate Career-related Certificate, IB Approaches to Learning courses introduce students to life skills to enable them to engage critically with others. Course topics include ethical dilemmas, deductive and inductive reasoning, culture shock, academic honesty, and emotional intelligence.
22151Career Exploration Career Exploration courses help students identify and evaluate personal goals, priorities, aptitudes, and interests with the goal of helping them make informed decisions about their careers. These courses expose students to various sources of information on career and training options and may also assist them in developing job search and employability skills.
22152Employability Skills Employability Skills courses help students match their interests and aptitudes to career options with a focus on using employment information effectively, acquiring and improving job-seeking and interview skills, composing job applications and resumes, and learning the skills needed to remain in and advance within the workplace. Course content may also include consumer education and personal money management topics.
22153Diversified Occupations Diversified Occupations courses help students enter the workforce through career exploration, job search and application, and the development of positive work attitudes and work-related skills. These courses typically cover such topics as career planning and selection, money management, communication skills, interpersonal business relationships and behaviors, and personal responsibility. Employment may be a required component of these courses, or students may be required to enroll concurrently in a work experience course.
22250ExploratoryExploratory courses provide a brief introduction to a variety of topics, typically elective subject areas, often in the form of discrete units or modules. Students may choose to take courses later that allow them to pursue the topics introduced in more depth. Topics may vary widely and span multiple subject areas within one course.
22260IB Personal Project, Middle Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Personal Project, Middle Years Program courses occur during the final year of the program and should result in a significant piece of work that is the product of the student’s own initiative and creativity. Students choose their projects, which may take many forms, and complete them under the supervision of a teacher. Projects involve planning, research, and a high degree of personal reflection.
22995Miscellaneous—AideMiscellaneous—Aide courses offer students the opportunity to assist instructors in preparing, organizing, or delivering course curricula or to assist other staff members in fulfilling their duties. Students may provide tutorial or instructional assistance to other students. Note: if the particular subject area is known, use the code associated with the Aide course within that subject area.
22997Miscellaneous—Independent StudyMiscellaneous—Independent Study courses, typically organized as a mentorship with a teacher or outside professional, enable students to conduct investigations related to their field(s) of interest. Note: if the particular subject area is known, use the code associated with the Independent Study course within that subject area.
22998Miscellaneous—Workplace ExperienceMiscellaneous—Workplace Experience courses provide students with work experience in a field related to their interests. Goals are typically set cooperatively by the student, teacher, and employer (although students are not necessarily paid). These courses may include classroom activities as well, involving further study of the field or discussion regarding experiences that students encounter in the workplace. Note: if the particular subject area is known, use the code associated with the Workplace Experience course within that subject area.
22999Miscellaneous—OtherOther Miscellaneous courses.
23001Early Childhood EducationEarly Childhood Education courses involve content that is not differentiated by subject area. These courses focus on content that is grade-specific and cover various subjects throughout the day, rather than a single subject-specific content area. Specific course content depends upon state standards for early childhood education.
23002Pre-kindergartenPre-kindergarten courses involve content that is not differentiated by subject area. These courses focus on content that is grade-specific and cover various subjects throughout the day, rather than a single subject-specific content area. Specific course content depends upon state standards for pre-kindergarten.
23003KindergartenKindergarten courses involve content that is not differentiated by subject area. These courses focus on content that is grade-specific and cover various subjects throughout the day, rather than a single subject-specific content area. Specific course content depends upon state standards for kindergarten.
23004Grade 1Grade 1 courses involve content that is not differentiated by subject area. These courses focus on content that is grade-specific and cover various subjects throughout the day, rather than a single subject-specific content area. Specific course content depends upon state standards for Grade 1.
23005Grade 2Grade 2 courses involve content that is not differentiated by subject area. These courses focus on content that is grade-specific and cover various subjects throughout the day, rather than a single subject-specific content area. Specific course content depends upon state standards for Grade 2.
23006Grade 3Grade 3 courses involve content that is not differentiated by subject area. These courses focus on content that is grade-specific and cover various subjects throughout the day, rather than a single subject-specific content area. Specific course content depends upon state standards for Grade 3.
23007Grade 4Grade 4 courses involve content that is not differentiated by subject area. These courses focus on content that is grade-specific and cover various subjects throughout the day, rather than a single subject-specific content area. Specific course content depends upon state standards for Grade 4.
23008Grade 5Grade 5 courses involve content that is not differentiated by subject area. These courses focus on content that is grade-specific and cover various subjects throughout the day, rather than a single subject-specific content area. Specific course content depends upon state standards for Grade 5.
23009Grade 6Grade 6 courses involve content that is not differentiated by subject area. These courses focus on content that is grade-specific and cover various subjects throughout the day, rather than a single subject-specific content area. Specific course content depends upon state standards for Grade 6.
23010Grade 7Grade 7 courses involve content that is not differentiated by subject area. These courses focus on content that is grade-specific and cover various subjects throughout the day, rather than a single subject-specific content area. Specific course content depends upon state standards for Grade 7.
23011Grade 8Grade 8 courses involve content that is not differentiated by subject area. These courses focus on content that is grade-specific and cover various subjects throughout the day, rather than a single subject-specific content area. Specific course content depends upon state standards for Grade 8.
23012Prior-to-Secondary EducationPrior-to-secondary Education--General courses involve content that is not grade differentiated and may apply to a range of consecutive grades (e.g., "by third grade, students should know and be able to do…"). These courses include content that may be applicable to states or localities that do not employ grade-level content standards.
23041IB Primary Years ProgramInternational Baccalaureate (IB) Primary Years Program courses incorporate six transdisciplinary themes defined by the International Baccalaureate Organization as the framework for exploration and study at the primary level. Those themes are who we are, where we are in place and time, how we express ourselves, how the world works, how we organize ourselves, and sharing the planet. The course addresses multiple subject areas through the framework of these themes, including language; social studies; mathematics; arts; science; and personal, social, and physical education.
Common Education Data Standards