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WIOA Barriers to Employment Updated Element


A self-identified barrier as defined by the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA) that is presumed to affect placement of a participant in unsubsidized employment.

Option Set
Cultural barriersThe participant has a perception of him-or herself as possessing attitudes, beliefs, customs, or practices that influence a way of thinking, acting, or working that may serve as a hindrance to employment.805
Displaced CaregiverThe participant has been providing unpaid services to family members in the home and (a) has been dependent on the income of another family member but is no longer supported by that income; (b) is the dependent spouse of a member of the armed forces on active duty whose family income is significantly reduced because of (i) a deployment or a call or order to active duty pursuant to a provision of law, (ii) a permanent change of station, or (iii) the service-connected death or disability of the member; and (c) is unemployed or underemployed and is experiencing difficulty in obtaining or upgrading employment.807
English language learnerThe participant has limited ability in speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language that may serve as a hindrance to employment.803
Exhausting Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) within 2 yearsThe participant is within 2 years of exhausting lifetime eligibility under Part A of Title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.), regardless of whether he or she is receiving these benefits at program entry.601
Ex-offenderThe participant is a person who either (a) has been subject to any stage of the criminal justice process for committing a status offense or delinquent act, or (b) requires assistance in overcoming barriers to employment resulting from a record of arrest or conviction.801
Homeless or runaway youthThe participant lacks a fixed, regular, and adequate nighttime residence; has a primary nighttime residence that is a public or private place not designed for or ordinarily used as a regular sleeping accommodation for human beings; is a migratory child who in the preceding 36 months was required to move from one school district to another due to changes in the parent's or parent's spouse's seasonal employment in agriculture, dairy, or fishing work; or is under 18 years of age and absents himself or herself from home or place of legal residence without the permission of his or her family (i.e., runaway youth). However, a participant who may be sleeping in a temporary accommodation while away from home should not, as a result of that fact alone, be recorded as homeless.800
Individual with disabilitiesThe participant indicates that he or she has a disability, defined as a physical or mental impairment, that substantially limits one or more of the person's major life activities, as defined under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.202
Long-term unemployedThe participant has been unemployed for 27 or more consecutive weeks.402
Low literacy levelThe participant has an inability to compute and solve problems or read, write, or speak English at a level necessary to function on the job, in the participant's family, or in society, which may serve as a hindrance to employment.804
Low-incomeThe participant (a) receives, or in the 6 months prior to application to the program has received, or is a member of a family that is receiving in the past 6 months assistance through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), the TANF program, the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, or State or local income-based public assistance; (b) is in a family with total family income that does not exceed the higher of the poverty line or 70% of the lower living standard income level; (c) is a youth who receives, or is eligible to receive, a free or reduced-price lunch; (d) is a foster child on behalf of whom State or local government payments are made; (e) is a participant with a disability whose own income is the poverty line but who is a member of a family whose income does not meet this requirement; (f) is a homeless participant or homeless child or youth or runaway youth; or (g) is a youth living in a high-poverty area.802
Migrant and seasonal farmworkerThe participant is a low-income individual who for 12 consecutive months out of the 24 months prior to application for the program involved has been primarily employed in agriculture or fish farming labor that is characterized by chronic unemployment or underemployment, and faces multiple barriers to economic self-sufficiency.808
Single parentThe participant is a single, separated, divorced, or widowed individual who has primary responsibility for one or more dependent children under age 18 (including single pregnant women).806
Current Foster Care YouthThe participant is a person who is currently in foster care.798
Former Foster Care YouthThe participant is a person who has aged out of the foster care system or who has attained 16 years of age and left foster care for kinship, guardianship or adoption, or an individual who were formerly in foster care, but returned to their families before turning 18.799
Related Domains, Entities and Categories

Adult Education -> AE Student -> Program Participation (Data Model ID = 69477) 
Workforce -> Workforce Program Participant -> Demographic (Data Model ID = 70492) New Association

Related Topics

Early Learning -> Program Quality 

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Common Education Data Standards